Objective—To assess selected clinicopathologic variables at hospital admission (day 1) for cold-stunned Kemp's ridley turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) that died during the first 3 days after admission (nonsurvivors) and turtles that survived (survivors) and to determine the percentage change of each variable from day 1 to day of death (nonsurvivors) or to day 2 or 3 of hospitalization (survivors).
Design—Retrospective case-control study.
Animals—64 stranded, cold-stunned Kemp's ridley turtles hospitalized from October 2005 through December 2009.
Procedures—Blood gas, pH, Hct, and selected biochemical values in blood samples determined on day 1 and day of death (nonsurvivors; n = 32) or day 2 or 3 of hospitalization (survivors; 32) were obtained from medical records. For each variable, initial values and percentage changes (from initial values to values at the day of death or day 2 or 3 of hospitalization) were compared between survivors and nonsurvivors.
Results—Compared with blood analysis findings for survivors, nonsurvivors initially had significantly higher potassium concentration and Pco2 and significantly lower Po2, pH, and bicarbonate concentration than did survivors. For the first 2 or 3 days of hospitalization, percentage changes in potassium, lactate, and ionized calcium concentrations were significantly higher and percentage changes in pH and plasma glucose and bicarbonate concentrations were significantly lower in nonsurvivors.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—At hospital admission, cold-stunned Kemp's ridley turtles were affected by metabolic and respiratory derangements; severe derangements were associated with death. Evaluation of blood gas, pH, Hct, and selected clinicopathologic variables provided useful clinical and prognostic information during rehabilitation of cold-stunned Kemp's ridley turtles.
To identify the antifungal susceptibility of Nanniziopsis guarroi isolates and to evaluate the single-dose pharmacokinetics of orally administered terbinafine in bearded dragons.
8 healthy adult bearded dragons.
4 isolates of N guarroi were tested for antifungal susceptibility. A compounded oral solution of terbinafine (25 mg/mL [20 mg/kg]) was given before blood (0.2 mL) was drawn from the ventral tail vein at 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after administration. Plasma terbinafine concentrations were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography.
The antifungal minimum inhibitory concentrations against N guarroi isolates ranged from 4,000 to > 64,000 ng/mL for fluconazole, 125 to 2,000 ng/mL for itraconazole, 125 to 2,000 ng/mL for ketoconazole, 125 to 1,000 ng/mL for posaconazole, 60 to 250 ng/mL for voriconazole, and 15 to 30 ng/mL for terbinafine. The mean ± SD peak plasma terbinafine concentration in bearded dragons was 435 ± 338 ng/mL at 13 ± 4.66 hours after administration. Plasma concentrations remained > 30 ng/mL for > 24 hours in all bearded dragons and for > 48 hours in 6 of 8 bearded dragons. Mean ± SD terminal half-life following oral administration was 21.2 ± 12.40 hours.
Antifungal susceptibility data are available for use in clinical decision making. Results indicated that administration of terbinafine (20 mg/kg, PO, q 24 to 48 h) in bearded dragons may be appropriate for the treatment of dermatomycoses caused by N guarroi. Clinical studies are needed to determine the efficacy of such treatment.
OBJECTIVE To determine pharmacokinetics after oral administration of single and multiple doses and to assess the safety of zonisamide in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).
ANIMALS 12 adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.
PROCEDURES Zonisamide (30 mg/kg, PO) was administered once to 6 parrots in a single-dose trial. Six months later, a multiple-dose trial was performed in which 8 parrots received zonisamide (20 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h for 10 days) and 4 parrots served as control birds. Safety was assessed through monitoring of body weight, attitude, and urofeces and comparison of those variables and results of CBC and biochemical analyses between control and treatment groups.
RESULTS Mean ± SD maximum plasma concentration of zonisamide for the single- and multiple-dose trials was 21.19 ± 3.42 μg/mL at 4.75 hours and 25.11 ± 1.81 μg/mL at 2.25 hours after administration, respectively. Mean plasma elimination half-life for the single- and multiple-dose trials was 13.34 ± 2.10 hours and 9.76 ± 0.93 hours, respectively. Pharmacokinetic values supported accumulation in the multiple-dose trial. There were no significant differences in body weight, appearance of urofeces, or appetite between treated and control birds. Although treated birds had several significant differences in hematologic and biochemical variables, all variables remained within reference values for this species.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Twice-daily oral administration of zonisamide to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots resulted in plasma concentrations known to be therapeutic in dogs without evidence of adverse effects on body weight, attitude, and urofeces or clinically relevant changes to hematologic and biochemical variables.
Objective—To calculate the prevalence of urolithiasis in client-owned chelonians examined at a veterinary teaching hospital and to describe the clinical signs, diagnosis, and treatment of urolithiasis in chelonians.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—40 client-owned turtles and tortoises with urolithiasis.
Procedures—The medical record database of a veterinary teaching hospital was searched from 1987 through 2012 for records of client-owned chelonians with urolithiasis. The prevalence of urolithiasis was calculated for client-owned chelonians examined at the hospital. Signalment and physical examination, hematologic, biochemical, urinalysis, diagnostic imaging, treatment, and necropsy results were described.
Results—The mean prevalence of urolithiasis in client-owned chelonians for the study period was 5.1 cases/100 client-owned chelonians examined. Thirty-one of the 40 chelonians were desert tortoises. Only 5 of 40 chelonians had physical examination abnormalities associated with the urogenital tract. Surgery was performed on 17 chelonians; 5 developed postoperative complications, and 4 of those died. Necropsy was performed on 18 chelonians, and urolithiasis contributed to the decision to euthanize or was the cause of death for 9. Uroliths from 13 chelonians were analyzed, and all were composed of 100% urate.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated chelonians with urolithiasis have various clinical signs and physical examination findings that may or may not be associated with the urinary tract. Hematologic, biochemical, and urinalysis findings were nonspecific for diagnosis of urolithiasis. Many chelonians died or were euthanized as a consequence of urolithiasis, which suggested the disease should be identified early and appropriately treated.
To document the clinical signs, diagnosis, and treatment of urolithiasis in green iguanas (Iguana iguana) and to report on the composition of uroliths from green iguanas submitted to the Minnesota Urolith Center for analysis.
21 green iguanas with urolithiasis.
Medical record databases of multiple veterinary teaching hospitals were searched from 1996 through 2020. Emails were sent to all facilities that submitted a urolith from a green iguana to the Minnesota Urolith Center from 1996 through 2020. Signalment; presenting complaint; physical examination findings; hematologic, biochemical, and diagnostic imaging findings; treatment; necropsy results; and survival times were described for each patient.
Iguanas most commonly presented with nonspecific clinical signs, but 9 of the 21 iguanas had clinical signs associated with the urogenital tract. Twelve iguanas had a palpable mass in the caudal coelom. All uroliths were visible on radiographs. Surgery was performed on 15 iguanas; 3 died secondary to intra- or postoperative complications. Iguanas that underwent surgery had a median survival time of 39 months. Necropsy was performed on 5 iguanas, and urolithiasis contributed to the decision to euthanize or was the cause of death for 4. Uroliths from 132 iguanas were analyzed, and all were composed of 100% uric acid salts.
Green iguanas with urolithiasis may not have clinical signs or physical examination findings associated with the urinary system, and hematologic and biochemical abnormalities are nonspecific. Green iguanas should be routinely examined for uroliths, and surgical treatment should be pursued.
A 4-year-old spayed female mixed-breed rabbit was evaluated because of a 3-year history of sneezing and nasal discharge that were refractory to medical management.
Signs of chronic left-sided rhinitis and sinusitis were observed on physical examination and confirmed by CT evaluation. Lysis of the rostral aspect of the left maxillary bone and destruction of nasal turbinates were evident on CT images.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
Pararhinotomy of the left maxillary sinus through the facies cribrosa was performed. Purulent material was removed from the maxillary sinus recesses, a middle meatal antrostomy was completed to allow permanent drainage into the left middle nasal meatus, and the tissues were closed routinely. Microbial culture of a sample from the maxillary sinus recesses revealed Bordetella bronchiseptica, undetermined fastidious nonenteric bacteria, and Streptococcus viridans. Medical management was continued, and nasal discharge resolved but sneezing persisted. Increased sneezing and bilateral nasal discharge developed 1.5 years later; CT examination revealed right-sided rhinitis, and culture of a nasal swab sample revealed Bordetella spp, Staphylococcus spp, and Micrococcus spp. Right-sided pararhinotomy and middle meatal antrostomy were performed, and medical management continued. A subsequent recurrence was managed without additional surgery; 4 years after the initial surgery, the rabbit was still receiving medical treatment, with mild intermittent nasal discharge and sneezing reported.
This report describes a surgical approach for treatment of chronic rhinitis in companion rabbits with maxillary sinus involvement that included creation of a permanent drainage pathway from the maxillary sinus to the middle nasal meatus.
A 12-year-old sexually intact male zoo-managed Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) was evaluated for a 3-day history of vomiting, hyporexia, and lethargy. Radiographs were supportive of gastrointestinal obstruction, and an exploratory laparotomy was performed.
Diffuse tan foci were present on the liver parenchyma, and the tiger became icteric throughout the procedure. Hepatic histopathology and immunohistochemistry resulted in a diagnosis of leptospirosis. Serum microagglutination testing for Leptospira spp antibody titers were positive for L kirschneri serovar Grippotyphosa, rising from 1:400 to 1:3,200 in 2 days.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
The tiger was treated with antimicrobials, ursodiol, and mirtazapine, and increased biosecurity measures were instituted. Free-ranging wildlife on grounds were trapped, euthanized, and submitted for necropsy to screen for disease vectors. The tiger’s urine was intermittently opportunistically collected from the enclosure and remained PCR assay negative for Leptospira spp until being positive once again on day 595. Although the tiger was without clinical signs at that time, antimicrobial therapy and increased biosecurity protocols were instituted a second time until urinary Leptospira shedding was confirmed to have stopped. By 1,071 days after initial presentation, the tiger remained nonclinical, with no additional urinary shedding episodes.
While domestic and nondomestic free-ranging felids have been reported as subclinical Leptospira spp carriers, this report indicates the clinical importance of leptospirosis when a tiger presents with generalized gastrointestinal signs and icterus. Due to the zoonotic potential, biosecurity measures are necessary. This patient had a clinically successful outcome with antimicrobial therapy and supportive care.