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  • Author or Editor: Kris T. Kruse-Elliott x
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Objective—To evaluate the effect of controlled exposure to inhaled lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on the pulmonary inflammatory response of anesthetized pigs.

Animals—Forty-seven 8- to 12-week-old domestic pigs.

Procedure—Pigs were anesthetized with pentobarbital, instrumented for measurement of cardiopulmonary function, and randomly assigned to receive saline (0.9% NaCl) solution or 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 µg of LPS/kg/h for 2 or 6 hours via nebulization through the endotracheal tube. Cardiopulmonary variables were measured, ex vivo neutrophil superoxide production determined, and postmortem assessment for pulmonary neutrophil influx and modulation of adhesion molecule (E-selectin) expression was done.

Results—Mild changes in cardiopulmonary function were observed in response to inhaled LPS in the 2- and 6-hour groups. In pigs inhaling LPS (0.5 or 1.0 µg/kg/h) for 6 hours, there was significant pulmonary neutrophil influx observed postmortem. An increase in expression of E-selectin on pulmonary endothelial cells after 6 hours of LPS inhalation (0.5 µg/kg/h) was also observed. In contrast, there was no significant influx of neutrophils or expression of E-selectin in lungs from pigs inhaling LPS for 2 hours.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Inhalation of LPS resulted in localized pulmonary inflammation characterized by neutrophil influx and increased expression of the endothelial cell adhesion molecule, E-selectin. It may be possible to relate our experimental findings to the clinical consequences of airborne LPS exposure in swine confinement facilities. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1302–1308)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To compare postoperative discomfort assessed by subjective pain score and plasma cortisol concentrations in cats undergoing onychectomy that received analgesia by use of transdermal fentanyl (TDF) patches or an IM injection of butorphanol.

Design—Randomized prospective clinical trial.

Animals—22 client-owned cats weighing 2.2 to 5 kg (4.84 to 11 lb) undergoing onychectomy.

Procedure—Researchers were blinded to which cats received a TDF patch (25 µg/h) 18 to 24 hours prior to surgery or an IM injection of butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg [0.09 mg/lb]) at the time of sedation, immediately following extubation, and at 4-hour intervals thereafter for 12 hours. Clinical variables, plasma cortisol concentration, and pain scores were evaluated and recorded 24 hours prior to surgery, at extubation, and 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours after surgery.

Results—The TDF group had a lower pain score than the butorphanol group only at 8 hours after surgery. Both groups had significantly lower mean plasma cortisol concentrations 0, 24, 36, and 48 hours after surgery, compared with mean plasma cortisol concentrations prior to surgery. No significant differences in appetite or response to handling the feet were observed between the 2 groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Our data did not reveal a difference in pain relief between administration of TDF and butorphanol. Plasma cortisol concentrations were not different between groups. Fentanyl appeared to provide equivalent analgesia to butorphanol in cats undergoing onychectomy. The primary advantage of using a TDF patch is that repeated injections are not required. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1020–1024)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association