Objective—To determine whether glucosamine and
chondroitin sulfate (CS) at concentrations approximating
those achieved in plasma by oral administration
would influence gene expression of selected mediators
of osteoarthritis in cytokine-stimulated equine
Sample Population—Samples of grossly normal
articular cartilage obtained from the metacarpophalangeal
joint of 13 horses.
Procedure—Equine chondrocytes in pellet culture
were stimulated with a subsaturating dose of recombinant
equine interleukin (reIL)-1β. Effects of prior
incubation with glucosamine (2.5 to 10.0 µg/mL) and
CS (5.0 to 50.0 µg/mL) on gene expression of matrix
metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, -2, -3, -9, and -13; aggrecanase
1 and 2; inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS);
cyclooxygenase (COX)-2; nuclear factor κB; and c-Jun-
N-terminal kinase (JNK) were assessed by use of a
quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction
Results—Glucosamine at a concentration of
10 µg/mL significantly reduced reIL-1β–induced
mRNA expression of MMP-13, aggrecanase 1, and
JNK. Reductions in cytokine-induced expression were
also observed for iNOS and COX-2. Chondroitin sulfate
had no effect on gene expression at the concentrations
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Concentrations
of glucosamine similar to those achieved in
plasma after oral administration in horses exerted pretranslational
regulation of some mediators of
osteoarthritis, an effect that may contribute to the cartilage-
sparing properties of this aminomonosaccharide.
Analysis of results of this study indicated that the
influence of CS on pretranslational regulation of these
selected genes is limited or lacking. (Am J Vet Res
Objective—To determine the clinical characteristics and outcome of foals with septic osteitis of the distal phalanx.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Procedures—Information obtained from medical records included signalment; clinical, laboratory, and radiographic findings; treatment method; and outcome. Foals included in the study had lameness referable to the foot, radiographic evidence of localized lysis or focal loss of bone density of the distal phalanx, and suppurative discharge or necrosis of the affected bone evident at surgery. Foals with a history or evidence of penetrating wounds or subsolar abscessation were excluded.
Results—Mean age of foals at initial evaluation was 40.8 days (range, 3 to 122 days). Twenty-one (95%) foals had lameness as the primary complaint. Lesions consistent with septic osteitis of the distal phalanx localized to specific areas of the bone on the basis of radiographic and surgical findings were located on the solar margin or toe (14/22 [64%]), extensor process (5/22 [23%]), and palmar or plantar process (3/22 [13%]). Hind limbs (18/26 [69%] affected limbs) were more frequently affected. Two foals had > 1 affected limb, 2 had additional sites of osteomyelitis, and 4 had concurrent septic arthritis. Surgical debridement and regional antimicrobial perfusion were performed during general anesthesia. Extensor process lesions were not debrided. Nineteen of 22 (86%) foals survived to be discharged from hospital, and 16 horses reached racing age. Eleven of 16 had race starts, of which 8 had official race starts and 3 had unofficial race starts.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Septic osteitis of the distal phalanx should be considered as a source of lameness in foals with signs referable to the foot and does not necessarily preclude a career in racing. Although infection may occur secondary to bacterial penetration of the hoof or sole, the distal phalanx should also be considered as a potential site for hematogenous septic arthritis or osteomyelitis in foals.