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  • Author or Editor: Kirsten M. Neil x
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Objective—To determine whether glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate (CS) at concentrations approximating those achieved in plasma by oral administration would influence gene expression of selected mediators of osteoarthritis in cytokine-stimulated equine articular chondrocytes.

Sample Population—Samples of grossly normal articular cartilage obtained from the metacarpophalangeal joint of 13 horses.

Procedure—Equine chondrocytes in pellet culture were stimulated with a subsaturating dose of recombinant equine interleukin (reIL)-1β. Effects of prior incubation with glucosamine (2.5 to 10.0 µg/mL) and CS (5.0 to 50.0 µg/mL) on gene expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, -2, -3, -9, and -13; aggrecanase 1 and 2; inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS); cyclooxygenase (COX)-2; nuclear factor κB; and c-Jun- N-terminal kinase (JNK) were assessed by use of a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay.

Results—Glucosamine at a concentration of 10 µg/mL significantly reduced reIL-1β–induced mRNA expression of MMP-13, aggrecanase 1, and JNK. Reductions in cytokine-induced expression were also observed for iNOS and COX-2. Chondroitin sulfate had no effect on gene expression at the concentrations tested.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Concentrations of glucosamine similar to those achieved in plasma after oral administration in horses exerted pretranslational regulation of some mediators of osteoarthritis, an effect that may contribute to the cartilage- sparing properties of this aminomonosaccharide. Analysis of results of this study indicated that the influence of CS on pretranslational regulation of these selected genes is limited or lacking. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1861–1869)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the clinical characteristics and outcome of foals with septic osteitis of the distal phalanx.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—22 foals.

Procedures—Information obtained from medical records included signalment; clinical, laboratory, and radiographic findings; treatment method; and outcome. Foals included in the study had lameness referable to the foot, radiographic evidence of localized lysis or focal loss of bone density of the distal phalanx, and suppurative discharge or necrosis of the affected bone evident at surgery. Foals with a history or evidence of penetrating wounds or subsolar abscessation were excluded.

Results—Mean age of foals at initial evaluation was 40.8 days (range, 3 to 122 days). Twenty-one (95%) foals had lameness as the primary complaint. Lesions consistent with septic osteitis of the distal phalanx localized to specific areas of the bone on the basis of radiographic and surgical findings were located on the solar margin or toe (14/22 [64%]), extensor process (5/22 [23%]), and palmar or plantar process (3/22 [13%]). Hind limbs (18/26 [69%] affected limbs) were more frequently affected. Two foals had > 1 affected limb, 2 had additional sites of osteomyelitis, and 4 had concurrent septic arthritis. Surgical debridement and regional antimicrobial perfusion were performed during general anesthesia. Extensor process lesions were not debrided. Nineteen of 22 (86%) foals survived to be discharged from hospital, and 16 horses reached racing age. Eleven of 16 had race starts, of which 8 had official race starts and 3 had unofficial race starts.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Septic osteitis of the distal phalanx should be considered as a source of lameness in foals with signs referable to the foot and does not necessarily preclude a career in racing. Although infection may occur secondary to bacterial penetration of the hoof or sole, the distal phalanx should also be considered as a potential site for hematogenous septic arthritis or osteomyelitis in foals.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association