Case Description—A 14-year-old Congo African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus) was evaluated for an acute onset of falling off of its perch and tonic-clonic movements.
Clinical Findings—Clinical signs were consistent with partial seizures. Findings on whole-body radiography, CBC, and plasma biochemical analysis were unremarkable. Plasma magnesium, ionized calcium, and bile acids concentrations were within reference limits. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination of the head revealed the presence of a focal hyperintensity at the central to left side of the optic chiasm and a hyperintense focus in the right side of the midbrain area in T2-weighted and FLAIR pulse sequence images. These findings were most consistent with an acute ischemic stroke with 2 brain infarcts.
Treatment and Outcome—Seizures were initially managed with potassium bromide and phenobarbital administration. On the basis of poor results and difficulties to reach therapeutic blood concentrations, the treatment plan was changed to levetiracetam and zonisamide administration. Blood concentrations were monitored for both drugs, and the frequency of seizures substantially decreased thereafter. A follow-up MRI examination 2 months later revealed resolution of the hyperintense signals. During the 20-month follow-up period, subsequent clusters of seizures were managed by adjusting levetiracetam and zonisamide dosages and adding clonazepam and gabapentin administration to the treatment plan. Regression of intraparenchymal hyperintense lesions and improvement of clinical signs made a diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke most likely.
Clinical Relevance—Findings for this Congo African grey parrot indicated that an antemortem diagnosis of an acute ischemic stroke followed by long-term seizure management may be possible in affected psittacines.
To compare urinalysis results for canine urine samples stored in preservative-containing tubes at room temperature (20°C to 25°C [68°F to 77°F]) or refrigerated at 4°C (39.2°F) in plain glass tubes with results for the same samples immediately after collection.
Urine samples from 20 healthy dogs.
Urine samples (1/dog) were divided into 6 aliquots (3 in preservative-containing tubes and 3 in plain glass tubes). Preservative-containing tubes were stored at room temperature and plain glass tubes were refrigerated. Urinalysis was performed 0, 24, and 72 hours after collection. Results for both storage conditions were compared with results for a reference sample (the 0-hour [immediate post-collection] aliquot in a plain glass tube) by Spearman correlation analysis with pairwise tests for selected variables.
Physical variables (urine color and turbidity with and without centrifugation) for both storage conditions had high (rs = 0.7 to 0.9) or very high (rs = 0.9 to 1.0) degrees of positive correlation with reference sample results at all time points, except for color at 24 hours. Similar results were found for all biochemical variables with storage up to 72 hours. For microscopic characteristics, correlation with reference sample results ranged from low or nonsignificant to very high under both storage conditions.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested that if a delay in urinalysis is expected, use of the preservative-containing tubes evaluated in this study may be a viable option for sample storage. Further research is warranted to assess direct comparability of results to those of freshly collected samples and use of these tubes to store samples from dogs with conditions affecting the urinary tract.