Objective—To evaluate clinical characteristics and breeds affected with bacterial keratitis and compare patterns of resistance in bacterial isolates over time in dogs.
Design—Retrospective cross-sectional study.
Animals—97 dogs with bacterial keratitis.
Procedure—Dogs with bacterial keratitis were identified from teaching hospital medical records at the Universities of Tennessee and Florida during the years 1993 to 2003. Data were collected pertaining to breed, Schirmer tear test results, treatments administered at the time of initial examination, bacterial species isolated, and resistance to selected antimicrobials.
Results—66% of the dogs were brachycephalic, 54% had tear production < 15 mm/min, and 29% were receiving a corticosteroid at the time of initial examination. The most common bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus intermedius (29%), β-hemolytic Streptococcus spp (17%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (21%). Staphylococcus intermedius isolates had limited resistance to certain antimicrobials. More than 80% of β-hemolytic Streptococcus spp isolates were resistant to neomycin, polymyxin B, and tobramycin. Isolates of P aeruginosa were susceptible to tobramycin and gentamicin and had limited resistance to ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin. Among bacterial species isolated, there was no evidence of development of antimicrobial resistance over time.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data suggested that administration of ciprofloxacin or a combination of a first-generation cephalosporin and tobramycin may be used in the treatment of bacterial keratitis while awaiting results of bacterial culture and susceptibility testing. Evidence suggests that current methods of medical management of bacterial keratitis are not associated with increased antimicrobial resistance.
Objective—To examine postoperative ocular hypertension
(POH) and other variables as predictors of the
risk of developing glaucoma after cataract surgery in
Animals—220 dogs that had cataract surgery.
Procedure—Medical records of 220 dogs (346 eyes)
that had extracapsular cataract removal or phacoemulsification
of cataracts were reviewed. With
respect to glaucoma development, 8 variables were
analyzed, which included development of POH,
breed, sex, age at time of surgery, eye (right vs left),
phacoemulsification time, intraocular lens (IOL) placement
(yes or no), and stage of cataract development.
Eyes developed glaucoma within 6 or 12 months of
surgery or did not have signs of glaucoma at least 6
or 12 months after cataract surgery.
Results—Of 346 eyes, 58 (16.8%) developed glaucoma
after surgery. At 6 months, 32 of 206 (15.5%)
eyes examined had glaucoma; at 12 months, 44 of
153 (28.8%) eyes examined had glaucoma. Median
follow-up time was 5.8 months (range, 0.1 to 48
months). Mixed-breed dogs were at a significantly
lower risk for glaucoma, compared with other breeds.
Eyes with IOL placement were at a significantly lower
risk for glaucoma, compared with eyes without IOL
placement. Eyes with hypermature cataracts were at
a significantly higher risk for glaucoma, compared
with eyes with mature or immature cataracts.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Multiple factors
appear to contribute to the onset of glaucoma in
dogs after cataract surgery. Complications prohibiting
IOL placement during cataract surgery may lead to a
high risk of glaucoma development. (J Am Vet Med
Objective—To examine in vitro effects of various
antiproteolytic compounds on activity of matrix metalloproteinase
(MMP)-2 and -9 in the tear film of horses
with active corneal ulcers.
Sample Population—Samples of tear film obtained
from the eyes of 34 horses with active ulcerative keratitis.
Procedure—Horses were sedated, and tear samples
were collected from the lower fornix of 34 ulcerated
eyes by use of capillary tubes. The protease inhibitors
0.2% EDTA, 0.1% doxycycline, 10% N-acetylcysteine
(NAC), 0.1% solution of a modified dipeptide that contains
hydroxamic acid (ie, ilomostat), 0.1% α1-proteinase
inhibitor (PI), 0.5% α1-PI, and 100% fresh
equine serum (ES) were used to treat pooled samples.
Amount of latent and active MMP-2 and -9 was
measured by optical density scanning of gelatin
zymograms of treated and untreated tear samples.
Results—Pooled tear samples obtained from ulcerated
eyes contained the latent and active forms of
MMP-2 and -9. Compared with MMP activity in
untreated samples, total MMP activity (sum of all
bands detected) observed on the gelatin zymogram
gels was reduced by 99.4% by EDTA, 96.3% by doxycycline,
98.8% by NAC, 98.9% by ilomostat, 52.4%
by 0.1% α1-PI, 93.6% by 0.5% α1-PI, and 90.0% by
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—We documented
that EDTA, doxycycline, NAC, ilomostat, α1-
PI, and ES inhibited MMP activity in vitro. Because
these compounds use different mechanisms to inhibit
various families of proteases in the tear film of horses,
a combination of these protease inhibitors may be
beneficial for treatment of corneal ulcers in horses.
(Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1081–1087)