Objective—To investigate the in vitro effects of 3 hydroxyethyl starch (HES) solutions on viscoelastic coagulation testing and platelet function in horses.
Sample—Blood samples collected from 7 healthy adult horses.
Procedures—Blood samples were diluted with various crystalloid and HES solutions to approximate the dilution of blood in vivo that occurs with administration of a 10 and 20 mL/kg fluid bolus to a horse (1:8 and 1:4 dilutions, respectively). Diluted samples were analyzed through optical platelet aggregometry, platelet function analysis, thromboelastography, and dynamic viscoelastic coagulometry. Colloid osmotic pressure and concentrations of von Willebrand factor and factor VIII:C were also determined for each sample.
Results—For all HES products, at both dilutions, the colloid osmotic pressure was significantly higher than that in the respective carrier solutions. At the 1:4 dilution, nearly all HES solutions resulted in significant alterations in platelet function as measured via the platelet function analyzer and dynamic viscoelastic coagulometer. Significant decreases in platelet aggregation and factor concentrations were also evident. Fewer HES-associated changes were identified at the 1:8 dilutions.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dilution of blood samples with all HES solutions resulted in changes in viscoelastic coagulation and platelet function that did not appear to be attributable to dilution alone. In vivo evaluations are necessary to understand the clinical impact of these in vitro changes.
Objective—To determine whether topical application of 1% diclofenac sodium cream would decrease inflammation at sites of IV regional limb perfusion (IVRLP) in healthy horses.
Animals—6 healthy adult horses (12 forelimbs).
Procedures—Bilateral IVRLP with 2.5 g of amikacin sulfate was performed twice in each horse, with 24 hours between each session. Horses were treated with topical 1% diclofenac liposomal cream (treated limbs) or a placebo cream (control limbs). All injection sites were evaluated before the first IVRLP session and 24 hours after the second session by means of ultrasonographic examination by a trained ultrasonographer who was unaware of the treatment received. Circumferential measurements and subjective visible inflammation scores were recorded by a veterinarian who was also unaware of treatment received.
Results—After IVRLP, control limbs had a significantly greater increase in subcutaneous thickness, compared with treated limbs. Ultrasonographic and visual assessment scores were significantly higher in control versus treated limbs. The mean change in limb circumference was greater, but not significantly so, in control limbs, compared with treated limbs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Topical application of 1% diclofenac sodium liposomal cream to sites of IVRLP in healthy horses decreased inflammation as judged by visual assessment and ultrasonography. Decreased inflammation may allow extended use of IVRLP and may result in a reduction in pain in treated horses.
OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of oral omeprazole administration on the fecal and gastric microbiota of healthy adult horses.
ANIMALS 12 healthy adult research horses.
PROCEDURES Horses were randomly assigned to receive omeprazole paste (4 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h) or a sham (control) treatment (tap water [20 mL, PO, q 24 h]) for 28 days. Fecal and gastric fluid samples were collected prior to the first treatment (day 0), and on days 7, 28, 35, and 56. Sample DNA was extracted, and bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences were amplified and sequenced to characterize α and β diversity and differential expression of the fecal and gastric microbiota. Data were analyzed by visual examination and by statistical methods.
RESULTS Composition and diversity of the fecal microbiota did not differ significantly between treatment groups or over time. Substantial variation in gastric fluid results within groups and over time precluded meaningful interpretation of the microbiota in those samples.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results supported that omeprazole administration had no effect on fecal microbiota composition and diversity in this group of healthy adult horses. Small sample size limited power to detect a difference if one existed; however, qualitative graphic examination supported that any difference would likely have been small and of limited clinical importance. Adequate data to evaluate potential effects on the gastric microbiota were not obtained. Investigations are needed to determine the effects of omeprazole in horses with systemic disease or horses receiving other medical treatments.