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  • Author or Editor: Kimberly L. Todd x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To describe the procedure and clinical usefulness of locking-loop pigtail nephrostomy catheter (PNC) placement in dogs and cats.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—16 cats (18 kidneys) and 4 dogs (4 kidneys) that underwent PNC placement.

Procedures—Medical records of patients that underwent PNC placement were reviewed. The PNCs were placed percutaneously with ultrasonographic and fluoroscopic guidance or via a ventral midline laparotomy with fluoroscopic guidance. Either a modified Seldinger technique or a 1-stab trocar introduction technique was used for PNC placement. Preoperative renal pelvic size, postoperative renal pelvic decompression, catheter patency, serum biochemical changes, and results of microbial culture of urine samples were reviewed. Length of time the catheter was in place, reason and method for catheter removal, complications, and clinical outcomes were noted.

Results—Reasons for PNC placement were ureterolithiasis (15 kidneys), ureteral stricture (3), malignant obstruction (2), and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (2). Seven of 22 catheters were placed percutaneously, and 15 were placed via a ventral midline laparotomy. Catheters were either size 5F (n = 17) or 6F (5). The PNCs remained indwelling for a median of 7 days (range, 1 to 28 days). Catheter-associated complications included urine leakage (n = 1) and accidental dislodgement by the patient at home (1). All catheters performed successfully by providing temporary urine diversion and drainage for successful renal pelvis decompression.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Placement of locking-loop PNCs was safe, effective, and well tolerated in dogs and cats for temporary urine diversion to achieve renal pelvis decompression.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine risk factors for lens luxation and cataracts in captive pinnipeds in the United States and the Bahamas.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—111 pinnipeds (99 California sea lions [Zalophus californianus], 10 harbor seals [Phoca vitulina], and 2 walruses [Odobenus rosmarus]) from 9 facilities.

Procedures—Eyes of each pinniped were examined by a veterinary ophthalmologist for the presence of cataracts or lens luxations and photographed. Information detailing husbandry practices, history, and facilities was collected with a questionnaire, and descriptive statistical analyses were performed for continuous and categorical variables. Odds ratios and associated 95% confidence intervals were estimated from the final model.

Results—Risk factors for lens luxation, cataracts, or both included age ≥ 15 years, history of fighting, history of ocular disease, and insufficient access to shade.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Diseases of the lens commonly affect captive pinnipeds. Access to UV-protective shade, early identification and medical management of ocular diseases, and prevention of fighting can limit the frequency or severity of lens-related disease in this population. An extended life span may result from captivity, but this also allows development of pathological changes associated with aging, including cataracts.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association