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  • Author or Editor: Kimberly A. Agnello x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate in vivo effects of tepoxalin, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX), on prostaglandin (PG) and leukotriene production in osteoarthritic dogs.

Animals—7 mixed-breed adult dogs with chronic unilateral arthritis of a stifle joint.

Procedure—Dogs were treated in accordance with a randomized 3-way crossover design. Each dog received an inert substance, meloxicam, or tepoxalin for 10 days. On day 0 (baseline), 3, and 10, dogs were anesthetized and samples of blood, stifle joint synovial fluid, and gastric mucosa were collected. Concentrations of PGE2 were measured in synovial fluid and after lipopolysaccharide stimulation of whole blood; PGE1 and PGE2 synthesis was measured in gastric mucosa. Thromboxane B2 (TxB2) concentration was measured in whole blood. Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) concentration was determined in gastric mucosa and in whole blood after ex vivo stimulation with a calcium ionophore.

Results—Tepoxalin significantly decreased LTB4 concentrations in the blood and gastric mucosa at day 10 and TxB2 concentrations in the blood and PGE2 in the gastric mucosa and synovial fluid at days 3 and 10, compared with baseline values. Meloxicam significantly decreased PGE2 concentrations in the blood at days 3 and 10 and synovial fluid at day 3. Meloxicam also decreased PGE1 and PGE2 synthesis in the gastric mucosa at day 3. Meloxicam did not affect LTB4 synthesis in the blood or LTB4 concentrations in the gastric mucosa.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tepoxalin has in vivo inhibitory activity against COX-1, COX-2, and 5-LOX in dogs at the current approved recommended dosage. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:966–972)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the incidence of pathological fractures associated with appendicular primary bone tumors in dogs managed medically and to identify potential risk factors at the time of radiographic diagnosis that may be associated with eventual pathological fracture.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—84 dogs with primary long bone neoplasia treated medically.

Procedures—Medical records for dogs with a diagnosis of primary long bone neoplasia based on results of radiography that was confirmed subsequently at necropsy were reviewed. Owners elected medical treatment at a pain clinic. Data regarding clinical signs, diagnostic testing, pathological findings, and outcome were evaluated.

Results—84 dogs met study inclusion criteria with 85 limbs affected. Osteosarcoma was the most common tumor and was identified in 78 of 85 (91.8%) limbs. The median time from diagnosis to euthanasia was 111 days (range, 28 to 447 days). Pathological fractures were identified in 33 of 85 limbs (38%), with the femur most commonly affected, (8/14 [57.1%]), followed by the tibia (9/17 [52.9%]), humerus (10/27 [37%]), radius (5/25 [20%]), and ulna (1/2 [50%]). Logistic regression analysis indicated that tumors arising from long bones other than the radius had odds of eventual fracture 5.05 as great as the odds for tumors of the radius, and lytic tumors had odds of eventual fracture 3.22 as great as the odds for tumors that appeared blastic or mixed lytic-blastic.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that radial primary bone tumors were less likely and lytic tumors were more likely to fracture. The overall incidence of pathological fractures secondary to appendicular primary bone neoplasia in this study with patients treated by means of intensive management for bone pain was higher than previously reported.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of zoledronate on markers of bone metabolism in dogs after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL).

Animals—21 adult dogs.

Procedure—Unilateral CrCL transection was performed arthroscopically. Dogs were allocated to 3 groups (control group, low-dose zoledronate [10 µg/kg, SC, q 90 d for 12 months], and high-dose zoledronate [25 µg/kg, SC, q 90 d for 12 months]). Serum osteocalcin (OC), serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and urine pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline concentrations were measured at 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after surgery. Bone mineral density (BMD) was determined in the distal portion of the femur and proximal portion of the tibia via computed tomography at each time point. Data were analyzed by a repeated-measures ANOVA.

Results—Zoledronate inhibited OC in the high-dose group at 9 and 12 months and at 12 months in the low-dose group, compared with the control group. High-dose zoledronate decreased BAP concentrations 3 and 9 months after surgery. In the control group, BMD was decreased in the femoral condyle and caudal tibial plateau. Zoledronate prevented significant BMD decreases starting 1 month after transection, compared with control dogs. In the caudomedial aspect of the tibial plateau, both zoledronate groups had significant increases in BMD after 3 months, compared with control dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Zoledronate may reduce subchondral bone loss and effect markers of bone metabolism in dogs with experimentally induced instability of the stifle joint and subsequent development of osteoarthritis. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1487–1495)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate radiation exposure of dogs and cats undergoing procedures requiring intraoperative fluoroscopy and for operators performing those procedures.

SAMPLE

360 fluoroscopic procedures performed at 2 academic institutions between 2012 and 2015.

PROCEDURES

Fluoroscopic procedures were classified as vascular, urinary, respiratory, cardiac, gastrointestinal, and orthopedic. Fluoroscopy operators were classified as interventional radiology-trained clinicians, orthopedic surgeons, soft tissue surgeons, internists, and cardiologists. Total radiation exposure in milligrays and total fluoroscopy time in minutes were obtained from dose reports for 4 C-arm units. Kruskal-Wallis equality of populations rank tests and Dunn pairwise comparisons were used to compare differences in time and exposure among procedures and operators.

RESULTS

Fluoroscopy time (median, 35.80 minutes; range, 0.60 to 84.70 minutes) was significantly greater and radiation exposure (median, 137.00 mGy; range, 3.00 to 617.51 mGy) was significantly higher for vascular procedures than for other procedures. Median total radiation exposure was significantly higher for procedures performed by interventional radiology-trained clinicians (16.10 mGy; range, 0.44 to 617.50 mGy), cardiologists (25.82 mGy; range, 0.33 to 287.45 mGy), and internists (25.24 mGy; range, 3.58 to 185.79 mGy).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Vascular fluoroscopic procedures were associated with significantly longer fluoroscopy time and higher radiation exposure than were other evaluated fluoroscopic procedures. Future studies should focus on quantitative radiation monitoring for patients and operators, importance of operator training, intraoperative safety measures, and protocols for postoperative monitoring of patients.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research