OBJECTIVE To describe the technique and outcome for male dogs undergoing rigid urethrocystoscopy via a novel percutaneous, fluoroscopic-assisted perineal approach.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 19 client-owned male dogs.
PROCEDURES Medical records of male dogs that underwent urethrocystoscopy via a percutaneous perineal approach for treatment of a variety of conditions from 2005 through 2014 were reviewed. Signalment, history, pertinent diagnostic imaging results, endourologic and postprocedure details, duration of hospitalization, complications, and outcome (short-term, < 1 month; long-term, ≥ 1 month) were recorded. After flexible urethrocystoscopy, direct percutaneous perineal needle puncture and guidewire placement by means of fluoroscopic guidance (with or without ultrasonography) allowed access to the urethral lumen. The perineal tract was subsequently serially dilated to accommodate a peel-away sheath and rigid endoscope. Rigid urethrocystoscopy was performed, and on completion of endourologic procedures, the access site was left to heal by second intention.
RESULTS 19 male dogs successfully underwent 20 procedures. No intraoperative complications were reported. Short-term outcome was good (ie, mild perineal urine leakage) for 3 dogs and excellent (ie, no abnormalities with urination) for 16. Long-term outcome was excellent for the 17 dogs for which follow-up information was available.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A percutaneous fluoroscopic-assisted perineal approach (with or without ultrasonography) allowed access to the pelvic urethra with no major complications in the present series of patients. This minimally invasive approach may be a valuable tool for endourologic procedures in male dogs.
Objective—To characterize the clinical course of dogs with hemoperitoneum in the perioperative setting and to determine risk factors that may affect short-term outcome.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—83 client-owned dogs.
Procedures—The medical records of dogs with hemoperitoneum that underwent surgery between 2005 and 2010 were reviewed. Data were analyzed to determine risk factors associated with perioperative outcome. The perioperative period was defined as the time from admission to the hospital for treatment of hemoperitoneum until the time of discharge or euthanasia (within the same visit).
Results—13 of 83 (16%) dogs died or were euthanized in the perioperative period. The median hospitalization time for surviving dogs was 2 days (range, 1 to 5 days). The requirement for a massive transfusion with blood products was a negative prognostic indicator for hospital discharge. The source of bleeding was isolated to the spleen in 75 of 83 (90%) dogs; a splenic source of hemorrhage was determined to be a positive predictor of survival to discharge from the hospital.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In the present study, factors associated with death and failure to be discharged from the hospital included tachycardia, a requirement for massive transfusion with blood products, and the development of respiratory disease secondary to suspected pulmonary thromboembolism or acute respiratory distress syndrome. The presence of disease within the spleen was positively associated with survival to discharge. Surgical intervention for treatment of hemoperitoneum, regardless of etiology, resulted in discharge from the hospital for 70 of the 83 (84%) dogs in this series.