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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

A 36-kg (79-lb) castrated male Greyhound (dog 1) and a 25-kg (55 lb) spayed female Greyhound (dog 2) underwent general anesthesia for dental care with similar perianesthetic protocols on multiple occasions from 2013 to 2016. Both dogs had periodontal disease but were otherwise deemed healthy. Both dogs developed clinically relevant hyperkalemia, with signs including loss of P waves on ECG tracings, during multiple anesthetic events.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

Dog 1 developed hyperkalemia during 2 of 2 anesthetic events, with ECG changes noted during the first event. Dog 2 developed hyperkalemia during 3 of 4 anesthetic events, with ECG changes identified during the second and third events. Serum potassium concentration for both dogs was within the reference range prior to and between anesthetic events. No underlying etiopathogenesis for hyperkalemia was identified for either dog.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

In each hyperkalemic event, the clinician stopped the dental procedure and continued to provide supportive care and monitoring while the dog recovered from anesthesia. The ECG changes resolved, and serum potassium concentration returned to the reference range rapidly after inhalant anesthetic administration was discontinued. The dogs were discharged from the hospital without further complications.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Hyperkalemia in anesthetized Greyhounds resulted in serious cardiac conduction abnormalities, which could be potentially fatal if not recognized and promptly treated. Further investigation into the etiopathogenesis, prevention and treatment strategies, and genetic or familial components of this condition is indicated.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare the disposition of lidocaine administered IV in awake and anesthetized horses.

Animals—16 horses.

Procedure—After instrumentation and collection of baseline data, lidocaine (loading infusion, 1.3 mg/kg administered during 15 minutes (87 µg/kg/min); constant rate infusion, 50 µg/kg/min) was administered IV to awake or anesthetized horses for a total of 105 minutes. Blood samples were collected at fixed times during the loading and maintenance infusion periods and after the infusion period for analysis of serum lidocaine concentrations by use of liquid chromatography with mass spectral detection. Selected cardiopulmonary parameters including heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), arterial pH, PaCO2, and PaO2 were also recorded at fixed time points during lidocaine administration. Serum lidocaine concentrations were evaluated by use of standard noncompartmental analysis.

Results—Serum lidocaine concentrations were higher in anesthetized than awake horses at all time points during lidocaine administration. Serum lidocaine concentrations reached peak values during the loading infusion in both groups (1,849 ± 385 ng/mL and 3,348 ± 602 ng/mL in awake and anesthetized horses, respectively). Most lidocaine pharmacokinetic variables also differed between groups. Differences in cardiopulmonary variables were predictable; for example, HR and MAP were lower and PaO2 was higher in anesthetized than awake horses but within reference ranges reported for horses under similar conditions.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Anesthesia has an influence on the disposition of lidocaine in horses, and a change in dosing during anesthesia should be considered. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:574–580)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the analgesic efficacy of ABT-116, a transient receptor potential cation channel vanilloid subfamily V member 1 antagonist, and compare it with that of buprenorphine by measurement of mechanical and thermal nociceptive thresholds in dogs.

Animals—Six 7- to 8-month-old dogs (3 males and 3 females).

Procedures—In a crossover study design, all dogs received ABT-116 (30 mg/kg, PO) and buprenorphine (0.03 mg/kg, orotransmucosally), with each treatment separated by 1 week. Physiologic variables were recorded prior to and 1, 6, and 24 hours after drug administration. Thermal (thoracic) and mechanical (dorsolateral aspect of the radius [proximal] and dorsopalmar aspect of the forefoot [distal]) nociceptive thresholds were assessed prior to (baseline) and 15 minutes and 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours after treatment.

Results—Buprenorphine administration resulted in higher overall thermal and proximal mechanical nociceptive thresholds, compared with ABT-116. Distal mechanical nociceptive thresholds after treatment were higher than baseline values for both treatments, but the magnitude of change was greater for buprenorphine at 1 hour after administration. Whereas HR and RR sporadically differed from baseline values after ABT-116 administration, rectal temperature increased from a baseline value of 39 ± 0.2°C (mean ± SD) to a peak of 40.6 ± 0.2°C at 6 hours.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs without inflammation or nerve injury, PO administration of ABT-116 did not consistently result in an increase in nociceptive thresholds. However, clinically relevant increases in rectal temperature were identified after ABT-116 administration.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether infusion of xylazine and ketamine or xylazine and propofol after sevoflurane administration in horses would improve the quality of recovery from anesthesia.

Animals—6 healthy adult horses.

Procedures—For each horse, anesthesia was induced by administration of xylazine, diazepam, and ketamine and maintained with sevoflurane for approximately 90 minutes (of which the last 60 minutes were under steady-state conditions) 3 times at 1-week intervals. For 1 anesthetic episode, each horse was allowed to recover from sevoflurane anesthesia; for the other 2 episodes, xylazine and ketamine or xylazine and propofol were infused for 30 or 15 minutes, respectively, after termination of sevoflurane administration. Selected cardiopulmonary variables were measured during anesthesia and recovery. Recovery events were monitored and subjectively scored.

Results—Cardiopulmonary variables differed minimally among treatments, although the xylazine-propofol infusion was associated with greater respiratory depression than was the xylazine-ketamine infusion. Interval from discontinuation of sevoflurane or infusion administration to standing did not differ significantly among treatments, but the number of attempts required to stand successfully was significantly lower after xylazine-propofol infusion, compared with the number of attempts after sevoflurane alone. Scores for recovery from anesthesia were significantly lower (ie, better recovery) after either infusion, compared with scores for sevoflurane administration alone.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Xylazine-ketamine or xylazine-propofol infusion significantly improved quality of recovery from sevoflurane anesthesia in horses. Xylazine-ketamine or xylazine-propofol infusions may be of benefit during recovery from sevoflurane anesthesia in horses for which a smooth recovery is particularly critical. However, oxygenation and ventilation should be monitored carefully.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the oral bioavailability, single and multidose pharmacokinetics, and safety of silibinin, a milk thistle derivative, in healthy horses.

Animals—9 healthy horses.

Procedures—Horses were initially administered silibinin IV and silibinin phospholipid orally in feed and via nasogastric tube. Five horses then consumed increasing orally administered doses of silibinin phospholipid during 4 nonconsecutive weeks (0 mg/kg, 6.5 mg/kg, 13 mg/kg, and 26 mg/kg of body weight, twice daily for 7 days each week).

Results—Bioavailability of orally administered silibinin phospholipid was 0.6% PO in feed and 2.9% via nasogastric tube. During the multidose phase, silibinin had nonlinear pharmacokinetics. Despite this, silibinin did not accumulate when given twice daily for 7 days at the evaluated doses. Dose-limiting toxicosis was not observed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Silibinin phospholipid was safe, although poorly bio-available, in horses. Further study is indicated in horses with hepatic disease.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To verify the isoflurane anesthetic minimum alveolar concentration (MAC)-sparing effect of a previously administered target plasma fentanyl concentration of 16 ng/mL and characterize an anticipated further sparing in isoflurane MAC associated with higher target plasma fentanyl concentrations.

Animals—8 horses.

Procedures—Horses were assigned 2 of 3 target plasma fentanyl concentrations (16, 24, and 32 ng/mL), administered in ascending order. Following determination of baseline MAC, horses received a loading dose of fentanyl followed by a constant rate infusion; MAC determination was performed in triplicate at baseline and at each fentanyl concentration. Venous blood samples were collected throughout the study for determination of actual plasma fentanyl concentrations. Recovery from anesthesia was monitored, and behaviors were rated as excellent, good, fair, or poor.

Results—Mean ± SD fentanyl plasma concentrations were 13.9 ± 2.6 ng/mL, 20.1 ± 3.6 ng/mL, and 24.1 ± 2.4 ng/mL for target concentrations of 16, 24, and 32 ng/mL, respectively. The corresponding changes in the MAC of isoflurane were −3.28%, −6.23%, and +1.14%. None of the changes were significant. Recovery behavior was variable and included highly undesirable, potentially injurious excitatory behavior.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of the study did not verify an isoflurane-sparing effect of fentanyl at a plasma target concentration of 16 ng/mL. Furthermore, a reduction in MAC was not detected at higher fentanyl concentrations. Overall, results did not support the routine use of fentanyl as an anesthetic adjuvant in adult horses.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate antioxidant capacity and inflammatory cytokine gene expression in horses fed silibinin complexed with phospholipid.

Animals—5 healthy horses.

Procedures—Horses consumed increasing orally administered doses of silibinin phospholipid during 4 nonconsecutive weeks (0 mg/kg, 6.5 mg/kg, 13 mg/kg, and 26 mg/kg of body weight, twice daily for 7 days each week). Dose-related changes in plasma antioxidant capacity, peripheral blood cell glutathione concentration and antioxidant enzyme activities, and blood cytokine gene expression were evaluated.

Results—Plasma antioxidant capacity increased throughout the study period with increasing dose. Red blood cell nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate:quinone oxidoreductase I activity decreased significantly with increasing doses of silibinin phospholipid. No significant differences were identified in glutathione peroxidase activity, reduced glutathione or oxidized glutathione concentrations, or expression of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1, or interleukin-2.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Minor alterations in antioxidant capacity of healthy horses that consumed silibinin phospholipid occurred and suggest that further study in horses with liver disease is indicated.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research