OBJECTIVE To characterize the maternal and fetal cardiopulmonary effects of a low-dose infusion of dexmedetomidine without a loading dose in pregnant ewes anesthetized with sevoflurane.
ANIMALS 11 pregnant ewes.
PROCEDURES Anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with sevoflurane. Ewes and fetuses were instrumented with arterial and venous catheters, and thermodilution–pulmonary arterial catheters were placed in the ewes. Baseline measurements were obtained at an end-tidal sevoflurane concentration of 3.4%, then dexmedetomidine (2 μg/kg/h, IV) was infused for 90 minutes without a loading dose. Cardiovascular and blood gas variables were measured at predetermined time points.
RESULTS Dexmedetomidine infusion resulted in approximately 30% decreases in maternal systemic vascular resistance, blood pressure, and heart rate. Maternal cardiac index, oxygenation variables, and acid-base status remained unchanged, whereas pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, and stroke volume increased, compared with baseline values. Uterine blood flow decreased by approximately 30% to 36%. Fetal heart rate and blood pressure remained unchanged, but significant increases in fetal plasma glucose and lactate concentrations were detected.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Pregnant ewes receiving a combination of sevoflurane and an infusion of dexmedetomidine without a loading dose had cardiac index in acceptable ranges and maintained normoxia. This balanced anesthesia did not produce significant changes in fetal blood pressure or heart rate. However, the increase in fetal plasma lactate concentration and changes in maternal pulmonary vascular resistance and uterine blood flow require further investigation to better elucidate these effects.
Objective—To determine the serologic and bacteriologic culture prevalence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection in sheep and goats and the value of such assays for prediction of future development of caseous lymphadenitis (CL).
Animals—919 goats and sheep in 3 herds in southwest Texas.
Procedures—During an initial evaluation, serologic and bacteriologic culture status for CL was determined for all animals. Subsequently, animals were evaluated every 6 months for a 13-month period to detect external CL lesions. Affected animals in 2 herds were treated with tulathromycin or a control treatment; affected animals in 1 herd were culled. The value of assays for prediction of future development of CL lesions was determined.
Results—The serologic prevalence of CL in herds at the start of the study ranged from 7.52% to 69.54%. The bacteriologic culture prevalence of CL ranged from 0% to 6.12% at the start of the study and 0% to 9.56% at the end of the study. Synergistic hemolysin inhibition results were poor predictors of future development of CL lesions in animals during the study period; however, animals with positive bacteriologic culture results for CL were more likely to develop lesions in the future than were animals with negative bacteriologic culture results.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Caseous lymphadenitis was detected in animals in this study despite prior management of affected animals in herds via culling. Use of a synergistic hemolysin inhibition test for management of CL may cause unnecessary culling of animals; treatment might allow retention of genetically valuable CL-affected animals in a herd without substantially increasing the prevalence of CL.
To determine oxytetracycline concentrations in plasma and in fluid from Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (CPT)-inoculated tissue chambers (used as experimental abscess models) and uninoculated (control) tissue chambers in sheep after IM or local administration of the drug and to investigate whether CPT growth was reduced or eliminated by these treatments.
10 clinically normal female sheep.
Sterile tissue chambers were surgically implanted in both paralumbar fossae of each sheep; ≥ 2 weeks later (day −6), 1 randomly selected chamber was inoculated with CPT, and the opposite chamber was injected with sterile growth medium. Sheep received oxytetracycline IM (n = 5) or by percutaneous injection into CPT-inoculated (4) or uninoculated (1) chambers on day 0. Tissue fluid from each chamber and venous blood samples for plasma collection were obtained at predetermined times over 6 days for bacterial counts (tissue chambers) and analysis of oxytetracycline concentrations (tissue chambers and plasma). Sheep were euthanized on day 6. Regional lymph nodes were collected bilaterally from each sheep for culture.
Measurable concentrations of oxytetracycline were present in each chamber throughout the study, regardless of administration route or presence of CPT. No CPT growth was detected after the 48-hour time point in inoculated chambers injected with oxytetracycline; however, CPT was isolated from all inoculated chambers throughout the study after IM drug administration. One regional lymph node (ipsilateral to a CPT-inoculated, oxytetracycline-injected chamber with no CPT growth after 48 hours) was culture positive for CPT.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Intralesional administration of oxytetracycline may eliminate growth of CPT locally, but complete elimination of the organism remains difficult.
Objective—To define the pharmacokinetics of florfenicol in synovial fluid (SYNF) and serum from central venous (CV) and digital venous (DV) blood samples following regional IV perfusion (RIVP) of the distal portion of the hind limb in cows.
Animals—6 healthy adult cows.
Procedures—In each cow, IV catheters were placed in the dorsal common digital vein (DCDV) and the plantar vein of the lateral digit, and an indwelling catheter was placed in the metatarsophalangeal joint of the left hind limb. A pneumatic tourniquet was applied to the midmetatarsal region. Florfenicol (2.2 mg/kg) was administered into the DCDV. Samples of DV blood, SYNF, and CV (jugular) blood were collected after 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 hours, and the tourniquet was removed; additional samples were collected at intervals for 24 hours after infusion. Florfenicol analysis was performed via high-performance liquid chromatography.
Results—In DV blood, CV blood, and SYNF, mean ± SD maximum florfenicol concentration was 714.79 ± 301.93 μg/mL, 5.90 ± 1.37 μg/mL, and 39.19 ± 29.42 μg/mL, respectively; area under the concentration versus time curve was 488.14 ± 272.53 h•μg•mL−1, 23.10 ± 6.91 h•μg•mL−1, and 113.82 ± 54.71 h•μg•mL−1, respectively; and half-life was 4.09 ± 1.93 hours, 4.77 ± 0.67 hours, and 3.81 ± 0.81 hours, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Following RIVP, high florfenicol concentrations were achieved in DV blood and SYNF, whereas the CV blood concentration remained low. In cattle, RIVP of florfenicol may be useful in the treatment of infectious processes involving the distal portion of limbs.
Objective—To determine results of ultrasound-guided cystocentesis and percutaneous infusion of Walpole's solution for treatment of male goats with urolithiasis.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—25 male goats with urolithiasis treated with Walpole's solution.
Procedures—Information obtained from the medical records included signalment, degree of urethral obstruction (partial vs complete), pertinent examination findings, concurrent illnesses, diet, other treatments administered, duration of hospitalization, whether the obstruction resolved, and outcome (ie, discharged vs euthanized).
Results—14 (58%) animals had complete urethral obstruction, and 10 (42%) had partial obstruction (degree of urethral patency was not recorded in 1 animal). Walpole's solution was infused once in 18 (72%) animals, twice in 6 (24%) animals, and 3 times in 1 (4%) animal. The amount of Walpole's solution required to achieve the target urine pH of 4 to 5 ranged from 50 to 250 mL. In 20 (80%) goats, the urethral obstruction resolved, and the goat was discharged. The remaining 5 (20%) goats were euthanized because of unresolved urethral obstruction. Six of the 20 (30%) goats that were discharged were reexamined because of recurrence of urethral obstruction.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that ultrasound-guided cystocentesis in combination with percutaneous infusion of Walpole's solution may be a useful treatment in male goats with obstructive urolithiasis.
Objective—To develop a repeatable model for studying colonization with streptomycin-resistant Escherichia coli O157:H7 in adult cattle.
Animals—5 adult mixed-breed beef cattle.
Procedures—Cattle were surgically cannulated in the duodenum, treated daily with streptomycin (33 mg/kg) via the duodenal cannula prior to and during experimental colonizations, and colonized with 1010 CFUs of streptomycin-resistant E coli O157:H7 via the duodenal cannula. Colonization of rectal mucus and shedding in feces were monitored. Antimicrobials were administered to eliminate the colonizing strain so that 5 repeated colonization experiments could be performed. A comprehensive analysis of colonization was performed at necropsy.
Results—Streptomycin treatment resulted in improved experimental colonization variables, compared with untreated controls, during initiation (days 2 to 6) and early maintenance (days 7 to 12) of colonization. Elimination of the colonizing strain followed by 5 repeated colonizations in the same animals indicated the repeatability of the protocol. Positive results of bacteriologic culture of feces 7 and 12 days after colonization were obtained in 100% and 84% of samples, respectively, across all animals and trials. At necropsy, highest magnitude recovery was in terminal rectal mucus.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The model was highly repeatable and novel with respect to streptomycin treatment, use of duodenal cannulas, and repeated colonizations of the same animals. Its use in adult cattle, from which most bovine-derived food originates, is critical to the study of preharvest food safety. The findings have implications for understanding intermittency of shedding in the field and for proposed vaccine-based interventions.