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Objective—To compare accuracy of estimates of cystolith size obtained by means of plain radiography, double-contrast cystography, ultrasonography, and computed tomography.

Sample Population—30 canine cystoliths ranging from 1 to 11 mm in diameter with various mineral compositions.

Procedures—A bladder phantom model was created by filling a rubber balloon with saline (1% NaCl) solution and positioning it on top of a 2% gelatin cushion at the bottom of a water-filled 4-quart container. Cystoliths were individually placed in the bladder phantom and imaged by each of the 4 techniques. For each image, cystolith size was measured by 2 radiologists with computerized calipers, and size estimates were compared with actual cystolith size.

Results—Mean cystolith size estimates obtained by means of radiography, cystography, and computed tomography did not differ significantly from each other. However, for ultrasonographic images, mean ± SD difference between actual and estimated cystolith size (2.95 ± 0.73 mm) was significantly higher than mean difference for radiographic, cystographic, and computed tomographic images. For ultrasonography, mean ± SD percentage overestimation in cystolith size was 68.4 ± 51.5%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that measurements of cystolith size obtained by means of ultrasonography may overestimate the true size. This suggests that cystolith size estimates obtained by means of ultrasonography should be interpreted with caution whenever cystolith size may influence patient management.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To document clinical signs in cats and dogs with Cuterebra infection, determine the outcome of infected animals, and determine whether Yorkshire Terriers were more commonly affected than other breeds of dogs.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 22 cats and 20 dogs with Cuterebra infection.

PROCEDURES Medical records of dogs and cats with Cuterebra infection were reviewed for signalment, history, clinical and laboratory findings, treatment, duration of hospitalization, and outcome.

RESULTS Most (16/20 [80%]) of the dogs weighed ≤ 4.5 kg (10 lb), and Yorkshire Terriers were overrepresented (8/20 [40%]), compared with dogs of other breeds. Ten (50%) dogs and 3 (14%) cats had systemic inflammatory response syndrome at the time of initial evaluation, and 8 (40%) dogs but none of the cats had disseminated intravascular coagulation. The overall mortality rate was 17% (7/42), but was higher for dogs (6/20 [30%]) than cats (1/22 [4.5%]). All 6 dogs that died weighed ≤ 4.5 kg and had systemic inflammatory response syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulation, or both.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that Cuterebra infection can cause severe systemic illness in small-breed dogs. Yorkshire Terriers were more commonly affected than were dogs of other breeds and, subjectively at least, appeared to be more likely to develop severe systemic illness.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association