OBJECTIVE To critically assess available data from controlled observational studies on the pathogenic role of Mycoplasma spp in the upper respiratory tract (URT) and lower respiratory tract (LRT) of cats.
DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis.
SAMPLE 12 studies.
PROCEDURES Seven electronic databases were searched for relevant publications. Risk of bias was assessed via the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Meta-analyses, stratified by URT versus LRT disease, were performed to estimate pooled ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between Mycoplasma isolation and URT or LRT disease. Subanalyses by diagnostic method, sampling site, and environment (shelter vs nonshelter) were planned for studies on URT disease.
RESULTS A significant association was found between isolation of mycoplasmal organisms and URT disease (pooled OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.14 to 2.40) but not LRT disease (pooled OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 0.51 to 4.76). The association with URT disease was only significant when conjunctival or pharyngeal samples from nonshelter cats were analyzed with a Mycoplasma felis-specific PCR assay.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that M felis may be a primary pathogen in cats with URT disease, warranting treatment in infected cats. The environment was important to consider when interpreting a mycoplasma-positive sample because of aclinical carriage, especially in shelter cats. Further investigations are needed to determine the role, if any, of mycoplasmal organisms in LRT disease of cats.
To describe the H-pharyngoplasty procedure, report the outcomes of dogs with brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS) treated with ala-vestibuloplasty and H-pharyngoplasty with a CO2 laser, and identify prognostic factors.
Medical records of dogs admitted for BOAS from 2011 to 2017 were reviewed. Dogs were included if they were treated with ala-vestibuloplasty and H-pharyngoplasty with a CO2 laser. Signalment, physical examination findings, grades at admission of clinical signs associated with respiratory and digestive systems, diagnostic test results, postoperative treatments, and short-term follow-up results were extracted from medical records. Long-term follow-up of > 12 months was evaluated via questionnaire. Generalized ordered logistic regression was used for bivariable and multivariable analyses.
Overall mortality rate was 2.6%. Median duration of follow-up was 36 months (12 to 91 months), and 341 (80.6%) dog owners completed the questionnaire. Major complications included respiratory distress (2.1%), heatstroke (0.5%), and bronchopneumonia (0.5%). No dogs required revision surgery. Improvement in signs associated with the respiratory and digestive systems was reported in 72% and 34% of the dogs, respectively, and owners’ satisfaction was high (97.1%). Risk of death increased by 29.8% (95% CI, 11.8% to 50.7%) for every 1-year increase in age.
CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
H-pharyngoplasty was possible in all dogs with BOAS, including those previously treated with conventional surgery and was associated with low morbidity and improved respiratory and digestive signs. H-pharyngoplasty combined with ala-vestibuloplasty may be an alternative treatment for even the most severely affected dogs.
To determine the effects of a transdermal lidocaine patch (TLP) on indicators of postoperative pain in healthy dogs following ovariohysterectomy.
Randomized, blinded controlled trial.
40 healthy shelter-owned female dogs admitted to a student surgery program for ovariohysterectomy.
Dogs were randomly assigned to receive after ovariohysterectomy a 5-cm-wide strip of TLP applied topically on both sides of the incision, for the full length of the incision and a wound dressing (n = 19) or a placebo patch (nonmedicated wound dressing; 21). All dogs underwent midline ovariohysterectomy. Immediately afterward, dogs received 2 IM morphine injections, carprofen (SC, q 12 h for 2 days), and the assigned patch (left in place for 18 hours). Postoperative comfort was evaluated by use of the short form of the Glasgow Composite Measures Pain Scale and serum cortisol concentrations measured prior to premedication and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 18 hours after surgery.
No significant difference in pain scores or serum cortisol concentrations was identified between dogs that received the TLP and dogs that received a placebo patch after ovariohysterectomy.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
The TLP provided no additional analgesic benefit to dogs treated concurrently with recommended doses of morphine and carprofen following ovariohysterectomy. Additional studies are needed to investigate whether similar results might be achieved in dogs treated concurrently with other analgesics. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2017;250:1140–1147)
Objective—To determine the strength of the relationship between paradoxical breathing (PB) and spontaneous pleural diseases in dyspneic dogs and cats.
Animals—Dogs (n = 195) and cats (194) with a recorded diagnosis of dyspnea examined at the National Veterinary Schools of Alfort and Toulouse (France) between January 2001 and October 2009.
Procedures—Dogs and cats were divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of PB. Stratified analysis by species was performed. Signalment of affected animals and occurrence of PB were recorded. The relationship between PB and pleural diseases among dyspneic dogs and cats was analyzed.
Results—A strong relationship between PB and pleural diseases was highlighted in multivariate analysis (dogs, OR = 12.6 and 95% confidence interval = 4.6 to 31.2; cats, OR = 14.1 and 95% confidence interval = 6.0 to 33.5). Paradoxical breathing prevalence among dyspneic dogs and cats was 27% and 64%, respectively. Occurrence of pleural diseases in dyspneic animals with and without PB was 49% and 9% in dogs and 66% and 13% in cats, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of PB as a predictor of pleural diseases were 0.67 and 0.83 in dyspneic dogs and 0.90 and 0.58 in dyspneic cats, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values of PB were 0.49 and 0.91 in dyspneic dogs and 0.66 and 0.87 in dyspneic cats, respectively. Age, sex, feline breeds, and canine morphotypes in patients with PB were not significantly different from those of other dyspneic animals.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—PB was strongly associated with pleural diseases in dyspneic dogs and cats. The presence of this clinical sign should prompt small animal practitioners to implement appropriate emergency procedures and guide their diagnostic strategy.
To compare the use of the video telescope operating monitor (VITOM) and use of a conventional unassisted surgical method for treatment of cervical intervertebral disc herniation in dogs.
39 dogs with cervical intervertebral disc disease.
Prospective study. Dogs were prospectively nonrandomly assigned to either the VITOM (n = 19) or conventional surgery (20) group depending on VITOM system availability. Signalment and preoperative neurologic status were recorded for all dogs. Preoperative and postoperative CT myelography was performed to compare intervertebral space location, spinal cord dimensions at the decompression level, ventral slot dimensions, and residual disc material. Surgical complications and postoperative neurologic outcomes were recorded. Data were compared between the 2 groups using fixed-effects or mixed-effects models to consider double reading of CT myelography images.
No significant differences were noted between the 2 groups regarding the decompression ratio (P = .85), vertebral length body ratio (P = .13), ventral slot width ratio (P = .39), residual disc material (P = .30), and sinus bleeding (P = .12). No significant differences were found between the 2 groups regarding postoperative neurologic grade (P = .17).
VITOM-assisted ventral slot decompression is equivalent to conventional surgery in treatment of cervical intervertebral disc herniation in dogs. The use of VITOM remains a good alternative to the conventional surgical method.