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To evaluate the effect of a constant rate infusion of ketamine on cardiac index (CI) in sheep, as estimated using noninvasive cardiac output (NICO) monitoring by partial carbon dioxide rebreathing, when anesthetized with sevoflurane at the previously determined minimum alveolar concentration that blunts adrenergic responses (MACBAR).


12 healthy Dorset-crossbred adult sheep.


Sheep were anesthetized 2 times in a balanced placebo-controlled crossover design. Anesthesia was induced with sevoflurane delivered via a tight-fitting face mask and maintained at MACBAR. Following induction, sheep received either ketamine (1.5 mg/kg IV, followed by a constant rate infusion of 1.5 mg/kg/h) or an equivalent volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (placebo). After an 8-day washout period, each sheep received the alternate treatment. NICO measurements were performed in triplicate 20 minutes after treatment administration and were converted to CI. Blood samples were collected prior to the start of NICO measurements for analysis of ketamine plasma concentrations. The paired t test was used to compare CI values between groups and the ketamine plasma concentrations with those achieved during the previous study.


Mean ± SD CI of the ketamine and placebo treatments were 2.69 ± 0.65 and 2.57 ± 0.53 L/min/m2, respectively. No significant difference was found between the 2 treatments. Mean ketamine plasma concentration achieved prior to the NICO measurement was 1.37 ± 0.58 µg/mL, with no significant difference observed between the current and prior study.


Ketamine, at the dose administered, did not significantly increase the CI in sheep when determined by partial carbon dioxide rebreathing.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research