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Abstract

Objective—To determine the efficacy (durations of remission and survival) of an alternating-day radiation protocol for incompletely excised histologic grade-III solitary mast cell tumors (MCTs) in dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—31 dogs.

Procedure—Radiation (52 Gy in an 18-fraction alternating-day protocol) was delivered to an area bordered by margins ≥ 3 cm around the surgical scar and to the associated local-regional lymph nodes. Dogs were not given chemotherapeutic agents concurrently or after radiation. Information on signalment, duration of remission, and survival time was obtained from medical records.

Results—Median and mean durations of remission were 27.7 and 17.0 months, respectively (range, 1 to 47 months). Median and mean durations of survival were 28 and 20 months, respectively (range, 3 to 52 months). Dogs with tumors located on the skin of the pinna, perineum, and prepuce had a median duration of remission greater than dogs with tumors located at other sites (27.7 and 14.4 months, respectively). Dogs with tumors ≤ 3 cm in maximum diameter before surgery survived longer than dogs with tumors > 3 cm (31 and 24 months, respectively). The remission rate was 65% and survival rate was 71% at 1 year after treatment. Sixteen dogs that were euthanatized had complications associated with local-regional tumor progression. Systemic metastases to liver, spleen, intestine, and bone marrow were detected in 1 dog.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Without further treatment, incompletely excised grade-III mast cell tumors have high local-regional recurrence; local-regional treatment with radiation may effectively be used to manage many such tumors. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:79–82)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether the addition of doxorubicin chemotherapy affected the outcome of cats with incompletely excised, nonvisceral soft tissue sarcomas undergoing postoperative radiotherapy.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—71 cats.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for clinically relevant data on cats that underwent postoperative radiotherapy for treatment of incompletely excised soft tissue sarcomas with or without concurrent doxorubicin chemotherapy. Radiotherapy was performed on an alternate-day schedule, with a total dose of 58.8 to 63 Gy delivered in 21 fractions. Doxorubicin was administered every 21 days for 3 to 5 cycles. Follow-up information was obtained by means of physical examination or through telephone conversations with refer-ring veterinarians or owners.

Results—Median disease-free interval with concurrent radiotherapy and doxorubicin chemotherapy (15.4 months; range, 2.4 to 44.9 months) was significantly longer than median disease-free interval with radiotherapy alone (5.7 months; range, 1.0 to 50.8 months). However, survival time was not significantly different between groups.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that doxorubicin chemotherapy may play a role in extending the disease-free interval in cats undergoing radiotherapy for treatment of incompletely excised soft tissue sarcomas.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of feeding a food with coconut oil and supplemental l-carnitine, lipoic acid, lysine, leucine, and fiber on weight loss and maintenance in dogs.

Design—Prospective clinical study

Animals—50 overweight dogs.

Procedures—The study consisted of 2 trials. During trial 1, 30 dogs were allocated to 3 groups (10 dogs/group) to be fed a dry maintenance dog food to maintain body weight (group 1) or a dry test food at the same amount on a mass (group 2) or energy (group 3) basis as group 1. During trial 2, each of 20 dogs was fed the test food and caloric intake was adjusted to maintain a weight loss rate of 1% to 2%/wk (weight loss phase). Next, each dog was fed the test food in an amount calculated to maintain the body weight achieved at the end of the weight loss phase (weight maintenance phase). Dogs were weighed and underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry monthly. Metabolomic data were determined before (baseline) and after each phase.

Results—During trial 1, dogs in groups 2 and 3 lost significantly more weight than did those in group 1. During trial 2, dogs lost a significant amount of body weight and fat mass but retained lean body mass (LBM) during the weight loss phase and continued to lose body fat but gained LBM during the weight maintenance phase. Evaluation of metabolomic data suggested that fat metabolism and LBM retention were improved from baseline for dogs fed the test food.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that feeding overweight dogs the test food caused weight loss and improvements in body condition during the weight-maintenance phase, possibly because the food composition improved energy metabolism.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of feeding a food with coconut oil and supplemental l-carnitine, lysine, leucine, and fiber on weight loss and maintenance in cats.

Design—Prospective clinical study.

Animals—50 overweight cats.

Procedures—The study consisted of 2 trials. During trial 1, 30 cats were allocated to 3 groups (10 cats/group) to be fed a dry maintenance cat food to maintain body weight (group 1) or a dry test food at the same amount on a mass (group 2) or energy (group 3) basis as group 1. During trial 2, each of 20 cats was fed the test food and caloric intake was adjusted to maintain a weight loss rate of 1%/wk (weight loss phase). Next, each cat was fed the test food in an amount calculated to maintain the body weight achieved at the end of the weight loss phase (weight maintenance phase). Cats were weighed and underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry monthly. Metabolomic data were determined before (baseline) and after each phase.

Results—During trial 1, cats in groups 2 and 3 lost significantly more weight than did those in group 1. During trial 2, cats lost a significant amount of body weight and fat mass but retained lean body mass during the weight loss phase and continued to lose body weight and fat mass but gained lean body mass during the weight maintenance phase. Evaluation of metabolomic data suggested that fat metabolism was improved from baseline for cats fed the test food.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that feeding overweight cats the test food caused weight loss and improvements in body condition during the weight maintenance phase, possibly because the food composition improved energy metabolism.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of feeding a diet supplemented with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids on carprofen dosage in dogs with osteoarthritis.

Design—Randomized, controlled, multisite clinical trial.

Animals—131 client-owned dogs with stable chronic osteoarthritis examined at 33 privately owned veterinary hospitals in the United States.

Procedures—In all dogs, the dosage of carprofen was standardized over a 3-week period to approximately 4.4 mg/kg/d (2 mg/lb/d), PO. Dogs were then randomly assigned to receive a food supplemented with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids or a control food with low omega-3 fatty acid content, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks later, investigators made decisions regarding increasing or decreasing the carprofen dosage on the basis of investigator assessments of 5 clinical signs and owner assessments of 15 signs.

Results—Linear regression analysis indicated that over the 12-week study period, carprofen dosage decreased significantly faster among dogs fed the supplemented diet than among dogs fed the control diet. The distribution of changes in carprofen dosage for dogs in the control group was significantly different from the distribution of changes in carprofen dosage for dogs in the test group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that in dogs with chronic osteoarthritis receiving carprofen because of signs of pain, feeding a diet supplemented with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids may allow for a reduction in carprofen dosage.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the antitumor and toxic effects of treatment with doxorubicin combined with piroxicam or doxorubicin alone for multicentric lymphoma in dogs.

Design—Nonrandomized clinical trial.

Animals—75 dogs with multicentric lymphoma.

Procedure—33 dogs were treated with doxorubicin (30 mg/m2, IV, q 21 d, for 3 doses) and piroxicam (0.3 mg/kg [0.14 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h); results were compared with a historical control group of 42 dogs treated with doxorubicin (30 mg/m2, IV, q 21 d, for 3 doses) alone.

Results—The percentages of dogs that had remission with doxorubicin-piroxicam treatment (79%) or doxorubicin treatment alone (74%) were not significantly different. Median duration of first remission was 130 days with doxorubicin-piroxicam and 147 days with doxorubicin alone; these values were not significantly different. Severe toxicosis was observed in 22% of dogs treated with doxorubicin-piroxicam and 17% of dogs treated with doxorubicin alone.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Both treatment protocols were efficacious and well tolerated. The doxorubicin-piroxicam treatment was no more effective regarding response rate, remission duration, or survival duration, compared with the control group treated with doxorubicin alone. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1813–1817)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of a food supplemented with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids on weight bearing in dogs with osteoarthritis.

Design—Randomized, double-blinded, controlled clinical trial.

Animals—38 client-owned dogs with osteoarthritis examined at 2 university veterinary clinics.

Procedures—Dogs were randomly assigned to receive a typical commercial food (n = 16) or a test food (22) containing 3.5% fish oil omega-3 fatty acids. On day 0 (before the trial began) and days 45 and 90 after the trial began, investigators conducted orthopedic evaluations and force-plate analyses of the most severely affected limb of each dog, and owners completed questionnaires to characterize their dogs' arthritis signs.

Results—The change in mean peak vertical force between days 90 and 0 was significant for the test-food group (5.6%) but not for the control-food group (0.4%). Improvement in peak vertical force values was evident in 82% of the dogs in the test-food group, compared with 38% of the dogs in the control-food group. In addition, according to investigators' subjective evaluations, dogs fed the test food had significant improvements in lameness and weight bearing on day 90, compared with measurements obtained on day 0.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—At least in the short term, dietary supplementation with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids resulted in an improvement in weight bearing in dogs with osteoarthritis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess the effect of food containing high concentrations of fish oil omega-3 fatty acids and a low omega-6–omega-3 fatty acid ratio on clinical signs of osteoarthritis in dogs.

Design—Randomized, double-blinded, controlled clinical trial.

Animals—127 client-owned dogs with osteoarthritis in 1 or more joints from 18 privately owned veterinary clinics.

Procedures—Dogs were randomly assigned to be fed for 6 months with a typical commercial food or a test food containing a 31-fold increase in total omega-3 fatty acid content and a 34-fold decrease in omega-6–omega-3 ratio, compared with the control food. Dog owners completed a questionnaire about their dog's arthritic condition, and investigators performed a physical examination and collected samples for a CBC and serum biochemical analyses (including measurement of fatty acids concentration) at the onset of the study and at 6, 12, and 24 weeks afterward.

Results—Dogs fed the test food had a significantly higher serum concentration of total omega-3 fatty acids and a significantly lower serum concentration of arachidonic acid at 6, 12, and 24 weeks. According to owners, dogs fed the test food had a significantly improved ability to rise from a resting position and play at 6 weeks and improved ability to walk at 12 and 24 weeks, compared with control dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ingestion of the test food raised blood concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids and appeared to improve the arthritic condition in pet dogs with osteoarthritis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effectiveness of masitinib for the treatment of nonresectable mast cell tumors (MCTs) in dogs at 12 and 24 months after onset of treatment.

Animals—132 dogs with nonresectable grade 2 or 3 MCTs.

Procedures—Dogs received masitinib (12.5 mg/kg/d, PO; n = 106) or a placebo (26). After 6 months, treatment was extended with tumor assessments at 3-month intervals until detection of disease progression. Endpoints were tumor response and overall survival rate and time.

Results—In dogs with nonresectable MCTs, masitinib significantly improved survival rate, compared with results for the placebo, with 59 of 95 (62.1%) and 9 of 25 (36.0%) dogs alive at 12 months and 33 of 83 (39.8%) and 3 of 20 (15.0%) dogs alive at 24 months, respectively. Median overall survival time was 617 and 322 days, respectively. Tumor control at 6 months had a high predictive value for 24-month survival, with high specificity (88%) and sensitivity (76%), whereas short-term tumor response (within 6 weeks) had a poor predictive value. Complete responses at 24 months were observed in 6 of 67 (9.0%) dogs with nonresectable MCTs treated with masitinib.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Masitinib significantly increased survival rates at 12 and 24 months in dogs with nonresectable MCTs. Control of disease at 6 months, but not best response at 6 weeks, was predictive of long-term survival in dogs treated with masitinib, which suggested that short-term response may be irrelevant for assessing clinical efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors for treatment of MCTs.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research