Objective—To determine the efficacy (durations of
remission and survival) of an alternating-day radiation
protocol for incompletely excised histologic grade-III
solitary mast cell tumors (MCTs) in dogs.
Procedure—Radiation (52 Gy in an 18-fraction alternating-day protocol) was delivered to an area bordered
by margins ≥ 3 cm around the surgical scar and
to the associated local-regional lymph nodes. Dogs
were not given chemotherapeutic agents concurrently
or after radiation. Information on signalment, duration
of remission, and survival time was obtained
from medical records.
Results—Median and mean durations of remission
were 27.7 and 17.0 months, respectively (range, 1 to
47 months). Median and mean durations of survival
were 28 and 20 months, respectively (range, 3 to 52
months). Dogs with tumors located on the skin of the
pinna, perineum, and prepuce had a median duration
of remission greater than dogs with tumors located at
other sites (27.7 and 14.4 months, respectively). Dogs
with tumors ≤ 3 cm in maximum diameter before
surgery survived longer than dogs with tumors > 3
cm (31 and 24 months, respectively). The remission
rate was 65% and survival rate was 71% at 1 year
after treatment. Sixteen dogs that were euthanatized
had complications associated with local-regional
tumor progression. Systemic metastases to liver,
spleen, intestine, and bone marrow were detected in
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Without further
treatment, incompletely excised grade-III mast
cell tumors have high local-regional recurrence; local-regional
treatment with radiation may effectively be
used to manage many such tumors. (J Am Vet Med
Objective—To determine whether the addition of doxorubicin chemotherapy affected the outcome of cats with incompletely excised, nonvisceral soft tissue sarcomas undergoing postoperative radiotherapy.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for clinically relevant data on cats that underwent postoperative radiotherapy for treatment of incompletely excised soft tissue sarcomas with or without concurrent doxorubicin chemotherapy. Radiotherapy was performed on an alternate-day schedule, with a total dose of 58.8 to 63 Gy delivered in 21 fractions. Doxorubicin was administered every 21 days for 3 to 5 cycles. Follow-up information was obtained by means of physical examination or through telephone conversations with refer-ring veterinarians or owners.
Results—Median disease-free interval with concurrent radiotherapy and doxorubicin chemotherapy (15.4 months; range, 2.4 to 44.9 months) was significantly longer than median disease-free interval with radiotherapy alone (5.7 months; range, 1.0 to 50.8 months). However, survival time was not significantly different between groups.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that doxorubicin chemotherapy may play a role in extending the disease-free interval in cats undergoing radiotherapy for treatment of incompletely excised soft tissue sarcomas.
Objective—To determine the effect of feeding a food with coconut oil and supplemental l-carnitine, lipoic acid, lysine, leucine, and fiber on weight loss and maintenance in dogs.
Design—Prospective clinical study
Animals—50 overweight dogs.
Procedures—The study consisted of 2 trials. During trial 1, 30 dogs were allocated to 3 groups (10 dogs/group) to be fed a dry maintenance dog food to maintain body weight (group 1) or a dry test food at the same amount on a mass (group 2) or energy (group 3) basis as group 1. During trial 2, each of 20 dogs was fed the test food and caloric intake was adjusted to maintain a weight loss rate of 1% to 2%/wk (weight loss phase). Next, each dog was fed the test food in an amount calculated to maintain the body weight achieved at the end of the weight loss phase (weight maintenance phase). Dogs were weighed and underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry monthly. Metabolomic data were determined before (baseline) and after each phase.
Results—During trial 1, dogs in groups 2 and 3 lost significantly more weight than did those in group 1. During trial 2, dogs lost a significant amount of body weight and fat mass but retained lean body mass (LBM) during the weight loss phase and continued to lose body fat but gained LBM during the weight maintenance phase. Evaluation of metabolomic data suggested that fat metabolism and LBM retention were improved from baseline for dogs fed the test food.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that feeding overweight dogs the test food caused weight loss and improvements in body condition during the weight-maintenance phase, possibly because the food composition improved energy metabolism.
Objective—To determine the effect of feeding a food with coconut oil and supplemental l-carnitine, lysine, leucine, and fiber on weight loss and maintenance in cats.
Design—Prospective clinical study.
Animals—50 overweight cats.
Procedures—The study consisted of 2 trials. During trial 1, 30 cats were allocated to 3 groups (10 cats/group) to be fed a dry maintenance cat food to maintain body weight (group 1) or a dry test food at the same amount on a mass (group 2) or energy (group 3) basis as group 1. During trial 2, each of 20 cats was fed the test food and caloric intake was adjusted to maintain a weight loss rate of 1%/wk (weight loss phase). Next, each cat was fed the test food in an amount calculated to maintain the body weight achieved at the end of the weight loss phase (weight maintenance phase). Cats were weighed and underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry monthly. Metabolomic data were determined before (baseline) and after each phase.
Results—During trial 1, cats in groups 2 and 3 lost significantly more weight than did those in group 1. During trial 2, cats lost a significant amount of body weight and fat mass but retained lean body mass during the weight loss phase and continued to lose body weight and fat mass but gained lean body mass during the weight maintenance phase. Evaluation of metabolomic data suggested that fat metabolism was improved from baseline for cats fed the test food.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that feeding overweight cats the test food caused weight loss and improvements in body condition during the weight maintenance phase, possibly because the food composition improved energy metabolism.
Animals—131 client-owned dogs with stable chronic osteoarthritis examined at 33 privately owned veterinary hospitals in the United States.
Procedures—In all dogs, the dosage of carprofen was standardized over a 3-week period to approximately 4.4 mg/kg/d (2 mg/lb/d), PO. Dogs were then randomly assigned to receive a food supplemented with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids or a control food with low omega-3 fatty acid content, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks later, investigators made decisions regarding increasing or decreasing the carprofen dosage on the basis of investigator assessments of 5 clinical signs and owner assessments of 15 signs.
Results—Linear regression analysis indicated that over the 12-week study period, carprofen dosage decreased significantly faster among dogs fed the supplemented diet than among dogs fed the control diet. The distribution of changes in carprofen dosage for dogs in the control group was significantly different from the distribution of changes in carprofen dosage for dogs in the test group.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that in dogs with chronic osteoarthritis receiving carprofen because of signs of pain, feeding a diet supplemented with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids may allow for a reduction in carprofen dosage.
Objective—To evaluate the antitumor and toxic
effects of treatment with doxorubicin combined with
piroxicam or doxorubicin alone for multicentric lymphoma
Design—Nonrandomized clinical trial.
Animals—75 dogs with multicentric lymphoma.
Procedure—33 dogs were treated with doxorubicin
(30 mg/m2, IV, q 21 d, for 3 doses) and piroxicam (0.3
mg/kg [0.14 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h); results were compared
with a historical control group of 42 dogs treated
with doxorubicin (30 mg/m2, IV, q 21 d, for 3 doses)
Results—The percentages of dogs that had remission
with doxorubicin-piroxicam treatment (79%) or
doxorubicin treatment alone (74%) were not significantly
different. Median duration of first remission
was 130 days with doxorubicin-piroxicam and 147
days with doxorubicin alone; these values were not
significantly different. Severe toxicosis was observed
in 22% of dogs treated with doxorubicin-piroxicam
and 17% of dogs treated with doxorubicin alone.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Both treatment
protocols were efficacious and well tolerated.
The doxorubicin-piroxicam treatment was no more
effective regarding response rate, remission duration,
or survival duration, compared with the control group
treated with doxorubicin alone. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1813–1817)
Animals—38 client-owned dogs with osteoarthritis examined at 2 university veterinary clinics.
Procedures—Dogs were randomly assigned to receive a typical commercial food (n = 16) or a test food (22) containing 3.5% fish oil omega-3 fatty acids. On day 0 (before the trial began) and days 45 and 90 after the trial began, investigators conducted orthopedic evaluations and force-plate analyses of the most severely affected limb of each dog, and owners completed questionnaires to characterize their dogs' arthritis signs.
Results—The change in mean peak vertical force between days 90 and 0 was significant for the test-food group (5.6%) but not for the control-food group (0.4%). Improvement in peak vertical force values was evident in 82% of the dogs in the test-food group, compared with 38% of the dogs in the control-food group. In addition, according to investigators' subjective evaluations, dogs fed the test food had significant improvements in lameness and weight bearing on day 90, compared with measurements obtained on day 0.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—At least in the short term, dietary supplementation with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids resulted in an improvement in weight bearing in dogs with osteoarthritis.
Animals—127 client-owned dogs with osteoarthritis in 1 or more joints from 18 privately owned veterinary clinics.
Procedures—Dogs were randomly assigned to be fed for 6 months with a typical commercial food or a test food containing a 31-fold increase in total omega-3 fatty acid content and a 34-fold decrease in omega-6–omega-3 ratio, compared with the control food. Dog owners completed a questionnaire about their dog's arthritic condition, and investigators performed a physical examination and collected samples for a CBC and serum biochemical analyses (including measurement of fatty acids concentration) at the onset of the study and at 6, 12, and 24 weeks afterward.
Results—Dogs fed the test food had a significantly higher serum concentration of total omega-3 fatty acids and a significantly lower serum concentration of arachidonic acid at 6, 12, and 24 weeks. According to owners, dogs fed the test food had a significantly improved ability to rise from a resting position and play at 6 weeks and improved ability to walk at 12 and 24 weeks, compared with control dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ingestion of the test food raised blood concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids and appeared to improve the arthritic condition in pet dogs with osteoarthritis.
Objective—To evaluate the effectiveness of masitinib for the treatment of nonresectable mast cell tumors (MCTs) in dogs at 12 and 24 months after onset of treatment.
Animals—132 dogs with nonresectable grade 2 or 3 MCTs.
Procedures—Dogs received masitinib (12.5 mg/kg/d, PO; n = 106) or a placebo (26). After 6 months, treatment was extended with tumor assessments at 3-month intervals until detection of disease progression. Endpoints were tumor response and overall survival rate and time.
Results—In dogs with nonresectable MCTs, masitinib significantly improved survival rate, compared with results for the placebo, with 59 of 95 (62.1%) and 9 of 25 (36.0%) dogs alive at 12 months and 33 of 83 (39.8%) and 3 of 20 (15.0%) dogs alive at 24 months, respectively. Median overall survival time was 617 and 322 days, respectively. Tumor control at 6 months had a high predictive value for 24-month survival, with high specificity (88%) and sensitivity (76%), whereas short-term tumor response (within 6 weeks) had a poor predictive value. Complete responses at 24 months were observed in 6 of 67 (9.0%) dogs with nonresectable MCTs treated with masitinib.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Masitinib significantly increased survival rates at 12 and 24 months in dogs with nonresectable MCTs. Control of disease at 6 months, but not best response at 6 weeks, was predictive of long-term survival in dogs treated with masitinib, which suggested that short-term response may be irrelevant for assessing clinical efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors for treatment of MCTs.