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Objective—To examine effects of an autologous platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) membrane for enhancing healing of a defect of the patellar tendon (PT) in dogs.

Animals—8 adult dogs.

Procedures—Defects were created in the central third of the PT in both hind limbs of each dog. An autologous PRF membrane was implanted in 1 defect/dog, and the contralateral defect was left empty. Dogs (n = 4/time period) were euthanized at 4 and 8 weeks after surgery, and tendon healing was assessed grossly and histologically via a semiquantitative scoring system. Cross-sectional area of the PTs was also compared.

Results—Both treated and control defects were filled with repair tissue by 4 weeks. There was no significant difference in the histologic quality of the repair tissue between control and PRF membrane—treated defects at either time point. At both time points, the cross-sectional area of PRF membrane—treated tendons was significantly greater (at least 2.5-fold as great), compared with that of sham-treated tendons. At 4 weeks, the repair tissue consisted of disorganized proliferative fibrovascular tissue originating predominantly from the fat pad. By 8 weeks, the tissue was less cellular and slightly more organized in both groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A PRF membrane did not enhance the rate or quality of tendon healing in PT defects. However, it did increase the amount of repair tissue within and surrounding the defect. These results suggested that a PRF membrane may not be indicated for augmenting the repair of acutely injured tendons that are otherwise healthy.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To evaluate effects of age (immature vs adult) and location along the trachea on the biomechanical properties (via a tensile stress relaxation test) and biochemical properties (water content and total proteoglycan content) of canine tracheal ring cartilage.

Sample population

Entire trachea from 8 immature and 8 adult dogs.


A section of each tracheal ring from 8 immature dogs (6 months old) and 8 adult dogs (2 to 3 years old) was tested biomechanically (maximal stress, equilibrium stress, equilibrium modulus, and percentage of relaxation) and processed for biochemical analysis (water content and total proteoglycan content). Two rings from each trachea were prepared for histologic analysis (H&E or safranin-O staining).


Biomechanical and biochemical parameters were not different between cervical and thoracic rings of either age group. Mean maximal stress, equilibrium stress, and equilibrium modulus were significantly higher for adult, compared with immature, dogs. However, percentage of relaxation for adult dogs was significantly lower. Tracheal rings of adult dogs had a significantly higher proteoglycan content and a significantly lower water content than did those of immature dogs. Water content and biomechanical parameters were significantly correlated, and proteoglycan content and biomechanical properties were significantly but weakly correlated. On histologic sectioning, a qualitative decrease in safranin-O staining in the rings of immature dogs also was observed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Biomechanical and biochemical properties of the canine tracheal ring cartilage are altered with age. However, location of the ring along the trachea did not affect these properties for either age group. Results lend support to the theory that proteoglycan content has some effect on tensile properties of tracheal rings and may explain increased compliance observed in rings from dogs with collapsed trachea. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:18–22)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the effects of oxytetracycline on matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) mRNA expression and collagen gel contraction by equine myofibroblasts in an effort to explain the mechanistic basis for the pharmacologic treatment of flexural deformities in foals.

Sample Population—Cultured myofibroblasts from the accessory ligament (distal check ligament) of 6 foals.

Procedure—Collagen gel scaffolds seeded with equine myofibroblasts were cultured in individual culture dishes containing complete media (Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium with 10% fetal bovine serum) and oxytetracycline (0, 12.5, 25, or 75 µg/mL) for 48 hours. After 24 hours, the gels were released from the bottom of the culture plate and allowed to contract. Photographs were taken at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 hours after release to assess the degree of collagen gel contraction. Additional gels were harvested at 2 hours after release for RNA isolation and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assessment of the degree of MMP-1 mRNA expression.

Results—Oxytetracycline induced a dose-dependent inhibition of collagen gel contraction by equine myofibroblasts. Oxytetracycline also induced a dose-dependent decrease in MMP-1 mRNA expression by equine myofibroblasts.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study indicate that oxytetracycline inhibits tractional structuring of collagen fibrils by equine myofibroblasts through an MMP-1 mediated mechanism. In young foals, oxytetracycline administration may make the developing ligaments and tendons more susceptible to elongation during normal weight-bearing. Inhibition of normal collagen organization may provide the mechanistic explanation for the results seen following the pharmacologic treatment of flexural deformities in foals by oxytetracycline administration. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:491–496)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To describe the effect of systemically administered oxytetracycline on the viscoelastic properties of rat tail tendon fascicles (TTfs) to provide a mechanistic rationale for pharmacological treatment of flexural limb deformities in foals.

Sample—TTfs from ten 1-month-old and ten 6-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats.

Procedures—5 rats in each age group were administered oxytetracycline (50 mg/kg, IP, q 24 h) for 4 days. The remaining 5 rats in each age group served as untreated controls. Five days after initiation of oxytetracycline treatment, TTfs were collected and their viscoelastic properties were evaluated via a stress-relaxation protocol. Maximum modulus and equilibrium modulus were compared via a 2-way ANOVA. Collagen fibril size, density, and orientation in TTfs were compared between treated and control rats.

Results—Viscoelastic properties were significantly decreased in TTfs from 1-month-old oxytetracycline-treated rats, compared with those in TTfs from 1-month-old control rats. Oxytetracycline had no effect on the viscoelastic properties of TTfs from 6-month-old rats. Collagen fibril size, density, and orientation in TTfs from 1-month-old rats did not differ between oxytetracycline-treated and control rats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results confirmed that systemically administered oxytetracycline decreased the viscoelastic properties of TTfs from 1-month-old rats but not those of TTfs from 6-month-old rats. The decrease in viscoelastic properties associated with oxytetracycline treatment does not appear to be caused by altered collagen fibril diameter or organization. The age-dependent effect of oxytetracycline on the viscoelastic properties of tendons may be related to its effect on the maturation of the extracellular matrix of developing tendons.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research