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  • Author or Editor: Kenneth W. Simpson x
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SUMMARY

The small intestine of healthy adult Beagles was examined to determine whether subclinical abnormalities might exist that would be relevant to the use of Beagles in pharmacologic studies. Duodenal juice was obtained for qualitative and quantitative bacteriologic examinations; jejunal mucosa was taken for morphologic and biochemical investigation, and intestinal permeability was assessed by quantification of 24-hour urinary excretion of 51Cr-labeled edta after its oral administration. Comparisons were made with findings in healthy adult dogs of other breeds that served as controls. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth was found in 14 of the 21 Beagles examined, and represented a mixed flora that included obligate anaerobic bacteria in 8 dogs and exclusively aerobic bacteria in 6 dogs. Intestinal permeability (percentage urinary recovery of 51Cr-labeled edta; mean ± sem) was considerably higher (P < 0.01) in Beagles with anaerobic overgrowth (37.6 ± 3.2%) or aerobic overgrowth (30.5 ± 4.8%), compared with Beagles with no overgrowth (17.3 ± 1.6%) and with controls (11.1 ± 1.0%). In Beagles, significant (r = 0.54, P = 0.03) correlation was observed between 24-hour urinary recovery of 51Cr-labeled edta and bacterial numbers in duodenal juice. Morphologic changes in jejunal mucosa were minimal, and specific activities of brush border enzymes were not significantly decreased, apart from aminopeptidase N, but activities of lysosomal and endoplasmic reticular marker enzymes were higher in the 3 groups of Beagles with anaerobic, aerobic, or no overgrowth, compared with controls. These findings indicate that apparently healthy Beagles can have bacterial overgrowth in the proximal portion of the small intestine, which is associated with enhanced intestinal permeability and may not be suspected by clinical examination or routine histologic examination of mucosa.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The influence of pancreatic secretions on the bacterial flora of the small intestine in 6 dogs was investigated by determining effects of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency on numbers and types of bacteria in duodenal juice, and by examining the subsequent response to dietary supplementation with bovine pancreatic extract. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency was induced by ligation of pancreatic ducts and was confirmed by indirect assessment of exocrine pancreatic function. Duct ligation was followed by large increases (P < 0.01) in total numbers of bacteria, reflecting increased numbers particularly of Lactobacillus spp and Streptococcus spp, in 3 dogs accompanied by obligate anaerobes. Total numbers of aerobes and anaerobes decreased markedly (P < 0.05) after supplementation with bovine pancreatic extract to values that were not significantly different from those determined before duct ligation. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency therefore resulted in small intestinal bacterial overgrowth that was reversed by pancreatic replacement therapy, indicating that pancreatic secretions can have an important influence on the small intestinal bacterial flora of dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate factors associated with response to treatment, remission duration, and survival in cats with low-grade lymphoma affecting various organ systems.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Sample Population—41 cats with histologically confirmed low-grade lymphocytic lymphoma.

Procedures—Medical records and biopsy specimens of cats with histologically confirmed low-grade lymphocytic lymphoma of various organ systems treated with prednisone and chlorambucil between 1995 and 2005 were reviewed. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate remission duration and survival. Factors potentially associated with prognosis were compared.

Results—Common clinical signs were weight loss (83%), vomiting (73%), anorexia (66%), and diarrhea (58%). Seventy-eight percent of cats tested had low serum cobalamin concentrations. Lymphoma was confined to the gastrointestinal tract in 68% of cats. Fifty-six percent of cats achieved a complete response to treatment, and 39% achieved a partial response. Five percent of cats had no response. No association was found between any risk factors (including anatomic site) and response to treatment. Partial response was associated with shorter remission duration, compared with complete response; median remission duration was 428 days for cats achieving a partial response, compared with 897 days for cats achieving a complete response. No other factors were associated with remission duration. Overall median survival time was 704 days. No factors were significantly associated with survival time.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Most cats with lymphocytic lymphoma responded to treatment with prednisone and chlorambucil, and most factors evaluated were not associated with outcome.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the Helicobacter spp present in the oral cavity of dogs and the relationship of those organisms with gastric Helicobacter spp to better define the potential for dog-human and dog-dog transmission.

Sample—Saliva and dental plaque from 28 dogs and gastric biopsy specimens from a subset of 8 dogs.

Procedures—PCR-based screening for Helicobacter spp was conducted on samples obtained from the oral cavity of 28 dogs. Comparative analysis was conducted on Helicobacteraceae 16S rDNA clone libraries from the oral cavity and stomach of a subset of 8 dogs (5 vomiting and 3 healthy) that had positive PCR results for Helicobacter spp.

Results—Helicobacteraceae DNA was identified in the oral cavity of 24 of 28 dogs. Analysis of cloned 16S rDNA amplicons from 8 dogs revealed that Wolinella spp was the most common (8/8 dogs) and abundant (52/57 [91%] clones) member of the Helicobacteraceae family in the oral cavity. Only 2 of 8 dogs harbored Helicobacter spp in the oral cavity, and 1 of those was coinfected with Helicobacter heilmannii and Helicobacter felis in samples obtained from the stomach and saliva. Evaluation of oral cavity DNA with Wolinella-specific PCR primers yielded positive results for 16 of 20 other dogs (24/28 samples were positive for Wolinella spp).

Conclusions and Clinical RelevanceWolinella spp rather than Helicobacter spp were the predominant Helicobacteraceae in the oral cavity of dogs. The oral cavity of dogs was apparently not a zoonotically important reservoir of Helicobacter spp that were non–Helicobacter pylori organisms.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate a [13C]urea breath and blood test (UBBT) for detection of gastric infections with Helicobacter spp in dogs.

Animals

8 Beagles with, and 3 Beagles without, gastric Helicobacter spp infection.

Procedure

The UBBT was evaluated in dogs of known infection status before and after treatment with amoxicillin, metronidazole, and famotidine (AMF). A standard dose of [13C]urea (4 mg/kg of body weight) was given, and breath and blood samples were obtained at 0, 20, 40, and 60 minutes after administration. Effect of AMF treatment on breath and blood 13CO2 values, gastric urease activity (GUA), and gastric spiral organisms (GSO) was evaluated 3 to 4 and 28 to 29 days after 14 days of AMF treatment.

Results

Breath and blood 13CO2 values were higher in infected dogs than uninfected dogs. Endogenous 13CO2 production was minimal. Breath and blood 13CO2 values varied by 10 and 13%, respectively, between test periods. There was a correlation (R 2 = 0.985) between breath and blood 13CO2 values. In 6 of 8 infected dogs, these values were decreased 3 days after completion of AMF administration and biopsy specimens lacked GSO and GUA. For these 6 dogs, breath and blood 13CO2 values were variable 28 days after completion of AMF treatment, and were associated with recurrence of GSO in 6 dogs and GUA in 4 dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Results of this study indicate that UBBT may provide a noninvasive procedure for detection of gastric infections with Helicobacter spp in dogs. Treatment with amoxicillin, metronidazole, and famotidine may not be effective in eradicating gastric infections with Helicobacter spp in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1364–1369)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of hydromorphone, hydromorphone and glycopyrrolate, medetomidine, and butorphanol premedication on the difficulty and time required to pass an endoscope into the stomach and duodenum of cats anesthetized with ketamine and isoflurane.

Design—Randomized complete block crossover study.

Animals—8 purpose-bred adult female cats.

Procedures—Each cat was premedicated and anesthetized 4 times with an interval of at least 7 days between procedures. Cats were premedicated with hydromorphone, hydromorphone and glycopyrrolate, medetomidine, or butorphanol administered IM. Twenty minutes after premedication, sedation was assessed by use of a subjective ordinal scale. Cats received ketamine administered IM, and 10 minutes later a cuffed orotracheal tube was placed and anesthesia maintained with isoflurane. Cats breathed spontaneously throughout the procedure. When end-tidal isoflurane concentration was stable at 1.4% for 15 minutes, endoscopy was begun. The times required to pass the endoscope through the cardiac and pyloric sphincters were recorded, and the difficulty of endoscope passage was scored by use of a subjective ordinal scale.

Results—No significant differences in difficulty or time required to pass the endoscope through the cardiac and pyloric sphincters were found among premedicant groups. Premedication with medetomidine resulted in the greatest degree of sedation and longest time to return to sternal recumbency.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that hydromorphone, hydromorphone and glycopyrrolate, medetomidine, and butorphanol at the doses tested can be used satisfactorily to premedicate cats prior to general anesthesia for gastroduodenoscopy. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:540–544)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To establish a reference interval for a feline-specific pancreatic lipase assay (Spec fPL test; Idexx Laboratories Inc) in healthy cats and determine the sensitivity and specificity of the Spec fPL test in a large group of ill cats with and without pancreatitis.

ANIMALS

41 healthy cats, 141 cats with clinical signs consistent with pancreatitis, and 786 stored sera with known feline pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (fPLI) concentrations.

METHODS

This was a prospective, cross-sectional, nonrandomized study. Based on a detailed review of the medical history and results of physical examination, CBC, serum biochemical profile, urinalysis, abdominal ultrasonography, and clinical outcome, each cat was categorized by 2 board-certified internists masked to the fPLI test results into 1 of 6 categories from definitely pancreatitis to definitely not pancreatitis.

RESULTS

The reference interval for the Spec fPL test, determined from the central 95th percentile of results from healthy cats, was fPLI of 0.7 to 3.5 µg/L. An fPLI concentration of ≥ 5.4 µg/L was determined to be consistent with pancreatitis. With an fPLI of 5.4 µg/L as the diagnostic cutoff, the sensitivity of the Spec fPL test for feline pancreatitis (definitely pancreatitis and probably pancreatitis) was 79.4%, the specificity for cats characterized as probably not pancreatitis and definitely not pancreatitis was 79.7%, and positive and negative predictive values were 69% and 87%, respectively.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

These findings support the use of the Spec fPL test as a valuable diagnostic test for feline pancreatitis.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association