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Abstract

Objective—To describe the pharmacokinetics of phenylbutazone and oxyphenbutazone after IV administration in miniature donkeys.

Animals—6 clinically normal miniature donkeys.

Procedure—Blood samples were collected before and 5, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 300, 360, and 480 minutes after IV administration of phenylbutazone (4.4 mg/kg of body weight). Serum was analyzed in triplicate by use of high-performance liquid chromatography for determination of phenylbutazone and oxyphenbutazone concentrations. The serum concentration-time curve for each donkey was analyzed separately to estimate model-independent pharmacokinetic variables.

Results—Serum concentrations decreased rapidly after IV administration of phenylbutazone, and they reached undetectable concentrations within 4 hours. Values for mean residence time ranged from 0.5 to 3.0 hours (median, 1.1 hour), whereas total body clearance ranged from 4.2 to 7.5 ml/kg/ min (mean, 5.8 ml/kg/ min). Oxyphenbutazone appeared rapidly in the serum; time to peak concentration ranged from 13 to 41 minutes (mean, 26.4 minutes), and peak concentration in serum ranged from 2.8 to 4.0 mg/ml (mean, 3.5 μg/ml).

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Clearance of phenylbutazone in miniature donkeys after injection of a single dose (4.4 mg/kg, IV) is rapid. Compared with horses, miniature donkeys may require more frequent administration of phenylbutazone to achieve therapeutic efficacy. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:673–675)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare serum disposition of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim after IV administration to donkeys, mules, and horses.

Animals—5 donkeys, 5 mules, and 3 horses.

Procedure—Blood samples were collected before (time 0) and 5, 15, 30, and 45 minutes and 1, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, 6, 8, 10, and 24 hours after IV administration of sulfamethoxazole (12.5 mg/kg) and trimethoprim (2.5 mg/kg). Serum was analyzed in triplicate with high-performance liquid chromatography for determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim concentrations. Serum concentration-time curve for each animal was analyzed separately to estimate noncompartmental pharmacokinetic variables.

Results—Clearance of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole in donkeys was significantly faster than in mules or horses. In donkeys, mean residence time (MRT) of sulfamethoxazole (2.5 hours) was less than half the MRT in mules (6.2 hours); MRT of trimethoprim in donkeys (0.8 hours) was half that in horses (1.5 hours). Volume of distribution at steady state (Vdss) for sulfamethoxazole did not differ, but Vdss of trimethoprim was significantly greater in horses than mules or donkeys. Area under the curve for sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim was higher in mules than in horses or donkeys.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dosing intervals for IV administration of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in horses may not be appropriate for use in donkeys or mules. Donkeys eliminate the drugs rapidly, compared with horses. Ratios of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole optimum for antibacterial activity are maintained for only a short duration in horses, donkeys, and mules. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:349–353)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare plasma disposition of the R(–) and S(+) enantiomers of carprofen after IV administration of a bolus dose to donkeys and horses.

Animals—5 clinically normal donkeys and 3 clinically normal horses.

Procedure—Blood samples were collected from all animals at time 0 (before) and at 10, 15, 20, 30, and 45 minutes and 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 24, 28, 32, and 48 hours after IV administration of a bolus of carprofen (0.7 mg/kg). Plasma was analyzed in triplicate via high-performance liquid chromatography to determine the concentrations of the carprofen enantiomers. A plasma concentration-time curve for each donkey and horse was analyzed separately to estimate noncompartmental pharmacokinetic variables.

Results—In donkeys and horses, the area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC) was greater for the R(–) carprofen enantiomer than it was for the S(+) carprofen enantiomer. For the R(–) carprofen enantiomer, the AUC and mean residence time (MRT) were significantly less and total body clearance (ClT) was significantly greater in horses, compared with donkeys. For the S(+) carprofen enantiomer, AUC and MRT were significantly less and ClT and apparent volume of distribution at steady state were significantly greater in horses, compared with donkeys.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results have suggested that the dosing intervals for carprofen that are used in horses may not be appropriate for use in donkeys. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1479–1482)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the efficacy of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J for the treatment of calves with experimentally induced infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK).

ANIMALS 12 healthy dairy calves.

PROCEDURES For each calf, a grid keratotomy was performed on both eyes immediately before inoculation with Moraxella bovis hemolytic strain Epp63–300 (n = 11 calves) or nonhemolytic strain 12040577 (1 calf). For each calf inoculated with M bovis Epp63–300, the eyes were randomly assigned to receive an artificial tear solution with (treatment group) or without (control group) lyophilized B bacteriovorus 109J. Six doses of the assigned treatment (0.2 mL/eye, topically, q 48 h) were administered to each eye. On nontreatment days, eyes were assessed and corneal swab specimens and tear samples were collected for bacterial culture. Calves were euthanized 12 days after M bovis inoculation. The eyes were harvested for gross and histologic evaluation and bacterial culture.

RESULTS The calf inoculated with M bovis 12040577 did not develop corneal ulcers. Of the 22 eyes inoculated with M bovis Epp63–300, 18 developed corneal ulcers consistent with IBK within 48 hours after inoculation; 4 of those eyes developed secondary corneal ulcers that were not consistent with IBK. Corneal ulcer size and severity and the time required for ulcer healing did not differ between the treatment and control groups.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that B bacteriovorus 109J was not effective for the treatment of IBK; however, the experimental model used produced lesions that did not completely mimic naturally occurring IBK.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives—To determine effects of feeding diets with various soluble-carbohydrate (CHO) content on rates of muscle glycogen synthesis after exercise in horses.

Animals—7 fit horses.

Procedures—In a 3-way crossover study, horses received each of 3 isocaloric diets (a high soluble CHO [HC] diet, a low soluble CHO [LC] diet, or a mixed soluble CHO [MC] diet). For each diet, horses were subjected to glycogen-depleting exercise, followed by feeding of the HC, LC, or MC diet at 8-hour intervals for 72 hours.

Results—Feeding the HC diet resulted in a significantly higher glycemic response for 72 hours and significantly greater muscle glycogen concentration at 48 and 72 hours after exercise, compared with results after feeding the MC and LC diets. Muscle glycogen concentrations similar to baseline concentrations were detected in samples obtained 72 hours after exercise in horses when fed the HC diet. Rate of glycogen synthesis was significantly higher when horses were fed the HC diet, compared with values when horses were fed the MC and LC diets. Glycogen synthase activity was inversely related to glycogen content. Protein content of glucose transporter-4 was the lowest at 72 hours after exercise when horses were fed the HC diet.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Muscle glycogen synthesis was slower after glycogen-depleting exercise in horses, compared with synthesis in humans. Feeding HC meals after strenuous exercise hastened replenishment of muscle glycogen content, compared with results for feeding of LC and MC diets, by increasing availability of blood glucose to skeletal muscles. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:916–923)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To compare serum disposition of flunixin meglumine after IV administration of a bolus to horses, donkeys, and mules.

Animals

3 clinically normal horses, 5 clinically normal donkeys, and 5 clinically normal mules.

Procedure

Blood samples were collected at time zero (before) and 5, 10, 15, 30, and 45 minutes, and at 1, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, 2, 2.5, 2.75, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, 5.5, 6, and 8 hours after IV administration of a bolus of flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg of body weight). Serum was analyzed in duplicate by the use of high-performance liquid chromatography for determination of flunixin meglumine concentrations. The serum concentration-time curve for each horse, donkey, and mule were analyzed separately to estimate noncompartmental pharmacokinetic variables

Results

Mean (± SD) area under the curve for donkeys (646 ± 148 minute • µg/ml) was significantly less than for horses (976 ± 168 minute • μg/ml) or for mules (860 ± 343 minute • µg/ml). Mean residence time for donkeys (54.6 ± 7 minutes) was significantly less than for horses (110 ± 24 minutes) or for mules (93 ± 30 minutes). Mean total body clearance for donkeys (1.78 ± 0.5 ml/kg/h) was significantly different from that for horses (1.14 ± 0.18 ml/kg/h) but not from that for mules (1.4 ± 0.5 ml/kg/h). Significant differences were not found between horses and mules for any pharmacokinetic variable.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance

Significant differences exist with regard to serum disposition of flunixin meglumine in donkeys, compared with that for horses and mules. Consequently, flunixin meglumine dosing regimens used in horses may be inappropriate for use in donkeys. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1441–1444)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine anatomic landmarks for a lateral approach for arthrocentesis of the proximopalmarolateral aspect of the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint in horses and the likelihood of entering synovial structures other than the DIP joint through this approach.

Design

Prospective study.

Sample Population

Paired forelimbs of 8 cadavers and 12 horses.

Procedure

Anatomic preparations were used to determine anatomic landmarks. Positive-contrast arthrography was used to determine which structures were entered.

Results

Landmarks for the lateral approach included a depression in the proximal border of the lateral ungular cartilage and the palmar border of the middle phalanx. Use of the lateral approach for arthrography resulted in deposition of contrast material exclusively in the DIP joint in only 13 of 20 limbs, whereas use of the dorsal approach resulted in deposition of contrast material exclusively in the DIP joint in 20 of 20 limbs.

Clinical Implications

The lateral approach is an alternative to the conventional dorsal approach to the DIP joint in horses; however, inadvertent entry into adjacent synovial structures is a possible complication. The lateral approach provides an additional portal for through-and-through lavage and arthroscopic access to the palmar aspect of the DIP joint. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212:1413–1418)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To compare the strength of the sutured linea alba, in vitro, using 2 suture patterns.

Animals

12 clinically normal llamas.

Procedure

2 incisions in the linea alba of 12 llamas were closed with a simple continuous or inverted cruciate pattern, and tissue was harvested after 10 days. In 6 llamas, the simple continuous line was intact; the inverted cruciate specimens contained 6 sutures. In 6 llamas, 1 knot was excised in the simple continuous pattern to simulate a failed line; the cruciate pattern contained 5 knots. Tissue sections were taken from cranial, between, and caudal to the linea alba incisions to compare fascial thickness. The sutured specimens were mounted in a mechanical testing system and tested to failure. A mixed-model ANOVA was used to evaluate the effects of suture pattern and incisional position on mechanical properties.

Results

Significant differences were not found between suture patterns or between location for yield force, failure force, or yield strain, whereas failure strain was lower for the intact simple continuous pattern than the inverted cruciate pattern (P = 0.003). From histomorphometric analysis, the caudal tissue specimens were significantly thinner than the middle tissue specimen cranial to the umbilicus (P = 0.006).

Conclusion

There was no significant difference in monotonic breaking strength of the linea alba sutured with the simple continuous or inverted cruciate pattern.

Clinical Relevance

These results justify the use of the simple continuous pattern over the cruciate pattern for ventral midline closure in llamas because of the ease of placement and speed. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:938–942)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research