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Objectives—To determine effects of feeding diets with various soluble-carbohydrate (CHO) content on rates of muscle glycogen synthesis after exercise in horses.

Animals—7 fit horses.

Procedures—In a 3-way crossover study, horses received each of 3 isocaloric diets (a high soluble CHO [HC] diet, a low soluble CHO [LC] diet, or a mixed soluble CHO [MC] diet). For each diet, horses were subjected to glycogen-depleting exercise, followed by feeding of the HC, LC, or MC diet at 8-hour intervals for 72 hours.

Results—Feeding the HC diet resulted in a significantly higher glycemic response for 72 hours and significantly greater muscle glycogen concentration at 48 and 72 hours after exercise, compared with results after feeding the MC and LC diets. Muscle glycogen concentrations similar to baseline concentrations were detected in samples obtained 72 hours after exercise in horses when fed the HC diet. Rate of glycogen synthesis was significantly higher when horses were fed the HC diet, compared with values when horses were fed the MC and LC diets. Glycogen synthase activity was inversely related to glycogen content. Protein content of glucose transporter-4 was the lowest at 72 hours after exercise when horses were fed the HC diet.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Muscle glycogen synthesis was slower after glycogen-depleting exercise in horses, compared with synthesis in humans. Feeding HC meals after strenuous exercise hastened replenishment of muscle glycogen content, compared with results for feeding of LC and MC diets, by increasing availability of blood glucose to skeletal muscles. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:916–923)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


To determine anatomic landmarks for a lateral approach for arthrocentesis of the proximopalmarolateral aspect of the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint in horses and the likelihood of entering synovial structures other than the DIP joint through this approach.


Prospective study.

Sample Population

Paired forelimbs of 8 cadavers and 12 horses.


Anatomic preparations were used to determine anatomic landmarks. Positive-contrast arthrography was used to determine which structures were entered.


Landmarks for the lateral approach included a depression in the proximal border of the lateral ungular cartilage and the palmar border of the middle phalanx. Use of the lateral approach for arthrography resulted in deposition of contrast material exclusively in the DIP joint in only 13 of 20 limbs, whereas use of the dorsal approach resulted in deposition of contrast material exclusively in the DIP joint in 20 of 20 limbs.

Clinical Implications

The lateral approach is an alternative to the conventional dorsal approach to the DIP joint in horses; however, inadvertent entry into adjacent synovial structures is a possible complication. The lateral approach provides an additional portal for through-and-through lavage and arthroscopic access to the palmar aspect of the DIP joint. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212:1413–1418)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To compare plasma disposition of phenylbutazone and its metabolite oxyphenbutazone after IV administration of phenylbutazone in horses and donkeys.


4 clinically normal horses and 6 clinically normal donkeys.


Blood samples were collected from each animal at time 0 (before) and 5, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 300, 360, and 480 minutes after IV administration of a bolus dose of phenylbutazone. Serum was analyzed in triplicate by use of high-performance liquid chromatography for determination of phenylbutazone and oxyphenbutazone concentrations. The serum concentration-time curve for each horse and donkey was analyzed separately to estimate model-independent pharmacokinetic variables.


Significant differences were found in several pharmacokinetic variables of phenylbutazone and oxyphenbutazone in horses, compared with donkeys. Mean total body clearance of phenylbutazone in horses was fivefold less than that in donkeys (29.3 and 170.3 ml/kg/h, respectively). Mean values for area under the curve and mean residence time in horses (118.3 µg/h/ml and 3.6 hours, respectively) were significantly greater than values in donkeys (28.3 µg/h/ml and 1.7 hours, respectively). Mean values for apparent volume of distribution at steady state were not significantly different between horses and donkeys. For oxyphenbutazone, mean time to peak concentration in donkeys was significantly less than that in horses (1.6 and 6.4 hours, respectively).


Phenylbutazone clearance in donkeys was higher than that in horses, and appearance of the metabolite oxyphenbutazone in serum was more rapid in donkeys than in horses, indicating that hepatic metabolism of phenylbutazone is more rapid in donkeys than in horses.

Clinical Relevance

Because serum concentration of phenylbutazone after single IV bolus administration (4.4 mg/kg of body weight) decreases more rapidly in donkeys, compared with horses, phenylbutazone may require more frequent administration in donkeys to achieve therapeutic efficacy. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:53–55)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research