Objective—To quantify effects of certified health programs on the sale price of beef calves sold through a livestock videotape auction service.
Sample Population—26,502 lots representing 3,205,192 beef calves sold through a livestock videotape auction service between 1995 and 2005.
Procedures—Data describing each lot of beef calves that were marketed from 1995 through 2005 by a livestock videotape auction service were obtained from sale catalogues. For each year of the study, multiple regression analysis was used to quantify the effect of certified health programs on sale price.
Results—For each year of the study, beef calves that qualified for the 2 most intensive certified health programs sold for significantly higher prices, compared with prices for similar calves that were not in a certified health program, had not been vaccinated against respiratory tract viruses, and were not weaned before delivery. Price premiums for calves in the most intensive certified health program ranged from $2.47/100 lb (hundredweight [cwt]; 1 cwt equals 45.45 kg) in 1995 to $7.91/cwt in 2004. Price premiums paid for calves qualifying for the next most intensive certified health program ranged from $0.99/cwt in 1996 to $3.47/cwt in 2004. The percentage of the total number of lots in the 2 most intensive certified health programs increased over time.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings from this study indicated that implementation of the 2 most intensive certified health programs consistently increased the price of beef calves, and these price premiums increased over time.
To develop a testing algorithm that incorporates multiple assays to evaluate host cellular and humoral immunity and antigen detection concerning Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) infection in captive nonhuman primates.
Cohorts of captive-bred and wild-caught macaques from 5 different geographic regions.
Macaques were tested for MTBC infection by use of a γ interferon tuberculosis (GIFT) assay, an interferon-γ release assay, and other assays. In the first 2 cohorts (n = 15 and 181), initial validation of the GIFT assay was performed by use of experimentally infected and unexposed control macaques. In the next 3 cohorts (n = 59, 42, and 11), results were obtained for opportunistically collected samples from macaques exposed during spontaneous outbreaks.
Sensitivity and specificity of the GIFT assay in the control cohorts were 100% and 97%, respectively, and were variable but enhanced by incorporating results from multiple assays in spontaneous outbreaks.
The detection and management of MTBC infection in captive nonhuman primate populations is an ongoing challenge, especially with animal imports and transfers. Despite standardized practices of initial quarantine with regular intradermal tuberculin skin testing, spontaneous outbreaks continue to be reported. Since infection encompasses a range of disease manifestations over time, a testing algorithm that incorporates multiple assays, such as the GIFT assay, to evaluate host cellular and humoral immunity in addition to agent detection is needed. Testing a combination of samples from controlled studies and spontaneous outbreaks of MTBC infection in nonhuman primates would advance the development and validation of a functional algorithm that incorporates promising tools such as the GIFT assay.