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  • Author or Editor: Kenneth L. Smith x
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Objective—To determine herd characteristics and management practices associated with milk production in dairy herds enrolled in official Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHIA) programs in Ohio. Sample Population—186 dairy farms in Ohio.

Procedure—All herds in official DHIA programs in 9 counties were invited to participate. Information regarding herd characteristics and management practices was obtained, using a standardized questionnaire. Bulk-tank milk samples were obtained for bacteriologic culture. Official DHIA test-day records were obtained, and associations were identified, using multivariable ANOVA procedures.

Results—Of 479 eligible producers, 186 (39%) participated, and consecutive bulk-tank milk samples were available for culture from 172 (36%). Streptococcus agalactiae and Mycoplasma spp were not recovered from bulk-tank milk samples, but Staphylococcus aureuswas recovered from 64 (37%) herds. Mean (± SD) number of lactating cows in participating herds was 97 ± 66, with 123 (66%) herds milking < 100 cows. The RHA was significantly associated with number of cows in milk, estimated percentage of herd detected in estrus, reported annual percentage of heifer calves born alive that died before 8 weeks old, percentage days in milk, use of bovine somatotropin during the preceding 2 years, and sex of the person completing the questionnaire.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In this study, the strongest indicator of milk production was number of cows in milk. However, merely adding cows to a herd should not be considered to guarantee increased milk production, because other management traits could be confounded with increased number of cows in a herd. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1262–1266)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine plasma disposition after dermal application of a liposome-encapsulated formulation of lidocaine in cats.

Animals—6 healthy adult cats with a mean (± SD) body weight of 4.1 ± 0.44 kg.

Procedure—CBC determination and biochemical analysis of blood samples were performed for all cats. Cats were anesthetized by use of isoflurane, and catheters were placed IV in a central vein. The next day, blood samples were obtained from the catheters before and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 24 hours after applying a 4% liposome-encapsulated lidocaine cream (15 mg/kg) to a clipped area over the cephalic vein. Plasma concentrations of lidocaine were analyzed with a high-performance liquid chromatography assay.

Results—Two cats had minimal transdermal absorption of lidocaine, with lidocaine concentrations below the sensitivity of the assay at all but 1 or 2 time points. In the other 4 cats, the median maximum plasma concentration was 149.5 ng/ml, the median time to maximum plasma concentration was 2 hours, and the median area under the concentration versus time curve from zero to infinity was 1014.5 ng·h/ml.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Maximum plasma concentrations of lidocaine remained substantially below toxic plasma concentrations for cats. On the basis of these data, topical administration of a liposome-encapsulated lidocaine formulation at a dose of 15 mg/kg appears to be safe for use in healthy adult cats. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1309–1312)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research