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Objective

To measure ionized calcium concentration in plasma from cats with urethral obstruction and to correlate these values with results of clinical biochemical analyses and physical examinations.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

24 male cats.

Procedure

Blood samples were obtained from each cat on admission, and PCV, pH, and concentrations of ionized calcium, total calcium, glucose, total solids, sodium, potassium, BUN, creatinine, chloride, magnesium, albumin, and phosphorus were determined. Mentation, tissue perfusion, and ECG recordings were also assessed.

Results

18 (75%) cats had low ionized calcium concentrations (reference range, 2.4 to 2.8 mEq/L). Hypocalcemia was considered mild (2.0 to 2.36 mEq/L) in 9 (37.5%) cats, moderate (1.6 to 1.98 mEq/L) in 6 (25%), and severe (< 1.6 mEq/L) in 3 (12.5%). Significant positive correlations were found between ionized calcium concentration and heart rate, pH, and concentrations of sodium, chloride, and total calcium. Significant negative correlations were found between ionized calcium concentration and concentrations of potassium, BUN, creatinine, and phosphorus.

Clinical Implications

Most cats with urethral obstruction had a low concentration of ionized calcium. This may contribute to cardiac electrical and mechanical dysfunction in some severely affected cats. Although effects of IV administration of calcium were not evaluated, results of this study strengthen the rationale for its use in cats with urethral obstruction. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:1392–1395)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify factors associated with increased risk of being bitten by a dog or cat in a veterinary teaching hospital.

Design—Unmatched case-control study.

Study population—207 animal caregivers.

Procedure—Case subjects (n = 75) were any caregiver that reported being bitten by a dog or cat. Control subjects (n = 132) were randomly selected from a list of all caregivers interacting with dogs or cats. Information on the characteristics of the caregivers, characteristics of the dogs and cats, and the nature of the interaction between the dog or cat and the caregiver was obtained by use of self-administered questionnaires.

Results—Caregivers were more likely to be bitten by dogs or cats that had warning signs on their cages indicating the potential to bite or that were considered difficult to handle. Caregivers interacting with cats or with older dogs and cats were more likely to be bitten. Only 37 to 55% of dogs and cats that had characteristics traditionally associated with biting or were considered likely to bite were muzzled.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Muzzling dogs and cats should be considered more frequently. Dogs and cats considered to have the propensity to bite frequently do bite, and precautions, such as muzzling, should be taken if the medical condition or conformation of the dog or cat is amenable to this type of restraint. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:312–316)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare the use of dexmedetomidine hydrochloride, xylazine hydrochloride, and hydrogen peroxide for emesis induction in cats.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—43 client-owned cats for which emesis induction was attempted because of known or suspected toxicant ingestion or recent ingestion of a string foreign body.

Procedures—Data collected from the cats’ medical records included type, dose, and route of administration of emetic agent; outcome of attempted emesis induction; time until emesis or postemesis administration of a reversal agent (to counter sedative effects of the emetic agent); and adverse events.

Results—Emesis induction was attempted by oral administration of hydrogen peroxide (n = 3) or IM or IV administration of xylazine (25 [including 1 cat that had already received hydrogen peroxide]) or dexmedetomidine (16). No cat that received hydrogen peroxide vomited. Emesis was induced in 11 of 25 xylazine-treated cats and in 13 of 16 dexmedetomidine-treated cats. Dexmedetomidine was more likely to cause vomiting than xylazine (OR, 5.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 36). The median dose of dexmedetomidine that caused emesis was 7. 0 μg/kg (3.2 μg/lb; range, 0.96 to 10.0 μg/kg [0.44 to 4.55 μg/lb]). The elapsed time until emesis or postemesis reversal agent administration was recorded for 5 xylazine-treated cats (median interval, 10 minutes [range, 5 to 175 minutes]) and 10 dexmedetomidine-treated cats (median interval, 5 minutes [range, 1 to 12 minutes]). Sedation was the only adverse effect, occurring in 2 xylazine-treated cats and 1 dexmedetomidine-treated cat.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that dexmedetomidine can be used successfully to induce emesis in cats.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare clinical characteristics and laboratory findings of dogs with eclampsia with those of dogs without eclampsia.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—31 dogs with eclampsia (affected) and 31 with dystocia (controls).

Procedure—Information on signalment, type of diet, reproductive history, litter size, time from whelping to eclampsia, body weight, clinical signs, results of physical examination and hematologic and biochemical analyses, response to calcium supplementation, and reccurrence was obtained from the medical records of all dogs with eclampsia evaluated between 1995 and 1998 and compared with information from medical records of 31 of 102 dogs with dystocia evaluated during the same period.

Results—Dogs with eclampsia weighed less, had a smaller body weight-to-litter size ratio, higher rectal temperature and heart and respiratory rates, and lower plasma total solids concentration than control dogs. Ionized calcium concentration was ≤ 0.8 mmol/L for all but 1 of the affected dogs; median concentration for the affected dogs was significantly less than that for control dogs. Six (19%) dogs did not manifest typical clinical signs associated with eclampsia. Twelve (39%) dogs with eclampsia had previous litters; none had a history of eclampsia. Affected dogs were discharged from the hospital within hours after admission, but 3 dogs returned 1 to 3 weeks later because of recurrence of eclampsia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Eclampsia develops primarily in small-breed dogs with large litters. Plasma ionized calcium concentrations > 0.8 mmol/L in dogs with clinical signs typical of hypocalcemia may indicate that other causes of clinical signs should be considered. In addition, some dogs with eclampsia may have low ionized calcium concentrations and not manifest typical clinical signs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:216–219)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine physical examination findings, clinicopathologic changes, and prognosis in dogs with zinc toxicosis.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—19 dogs with zinc toxicosis.

Procedures—Medical records from 1991 through 2003 were searched for animals with a diagnosis of zinc toxicosis.Information concerning signalment, body weight, historical findings, initial owner complaints, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic findings, blood zinc concentrations, source of zinc, treatments given, duration of hospital stay, and outcome was collected.

Results—Records of 19 dogs with zinc toxicosis were reviewed.The most common historical findings were vomiting (n = 14) and pigmenturia (12).The most common clinicopatho logic findings were anemia (n = 19) and hyperbilirubinemia (12).Median age was 1.3 years, and median weight was 5.6 kg (12.3 lb). The prognosis was favorable, with 17 dogs surviving after a median hospital stay of 2 days.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hemolytic anemia as a result of zinc toxicosis appeared to affect young small-breed dogs more frequently than older large-breed dogs.The prognosis with treatment is good, and most affected dogs had a short hospital stay.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—

To determine the typical history of and physical and clinicopathologic findings in dogs with heat-induced illness, and to correlate these findings with outcome.

Design—

Retrospective study.

Animals—

42 dogs with heat-induced illness.

Procedure—

Dogs were included in the study if other medical problems had not been previously diagnosed and if clinical signs of illness developed after exposure to a warm environment. Information obtained from each record included time of year heat-induced illness developed, signalment, history, clinical signs, physical examination findings, results of clinicopathologic tests, treatment, clinical course, outcome, and necropsy results.

Results—

Overall, 27 dogs survived and 15 died or were euthanatized. Time of year was recorded for 40 dogs. Thirty-one of the 40 were examined before July. Hypothermia and coma at the time of initial examination were associated with a poor outcome. Serum cholesterol, albumin, and total protein concentrations were significantly lower, serum total bilirubin and creatinine concentrations were significantly higher, and ventricular arrhythmias were detected significantly more frequently in dogs that did not survive than in dogs that did. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:1894–1899)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Two hundred ninety-five case records were included in an analysis of dogs treated by a standardized protocol for gastric dilatation/volvulus syndrome between 1986 and 1992. A breed predisposition was demonstrated for Great Danes, German Shepherd Dogs, large mixed-breed dogs, and Standard Poodles. One hundred and ninety-three dogs had gastric dilatation and volvulus (gdv) confirmed at surgery, 66 had simple gastric dilatation (gd), and 36 others had gastric dilatation but volvulus could not be proved or disproved (gd ± v). Among dogs with gdv, the fatality rate was 15% (29/193). Twenty-six (13.5%) dogs with gdv underwent partial gastrectomy, and 8 (31%) died or were subsequently euthanatized. In comparing the group of dogs with gdv that survived to those that died, there were no statistical differences in the age of dog, time between onset of clinical signs and admission, time from admission to surgery, or duration of anesthesia. Cardiac arrhythmias were detected in 40% (78/193) of the dogs with gdv. There also was no statistical correlation between development of a cardiac arrhythmia and outcome in dogs with gdv. The causes of death in dogs with gdv were multiple and varied; presumed gastric necrosis was a common reason for intraoperative euthanasia (11 dogs). Among dogs with gd or gd ± v, the fatality rate was 0.9% (1/102).

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To prospectively compare the effectiveness and any adverse effects of apo-morphine administered SC or IV for induction of emesis in dogs.

ANIMALS

42 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES

Dogs for which emesis induction was deemed appropriate by the attending clinician were prospectively randomized to receive apomorphine (0.03 mg/kg [0.01 mg/lb]) either SC (n = 20) or IV (22). Data collected included whether emesis was successfully induced, time from drug administration to emesis, number of emetic events, and adverse events (eg, sedation, protracted vomiting, or other).

RESULTS

Of the 20 dogs given apomorphine SC, 16 (80%) vomited. Of the 22 dogs given apomorphine IV, 18 (82%) vomited. With regard to route of administration, the number of dogs in which emesis was induced did not differ significantly. Median time to the first emetic event was 13.5 minutes (range, 3 to 32 minutes) in the SC treatment group and 2 minutes (range, 1 to 5 minutes) in the IV treatment group; the difference was significant. There was no significant difference in the number of emetic events or frequency of adverse events between the 2 groups.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Apomorphine administered SC or IV reliably induced emesis in dogs. Compared with SC administration of apomorphine, the time from drug administration to emesis associated with IV administration was significantly shorter, a finding that has clinical importance. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021;259:283–287)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize clinical signs, diagnostic test results, foreign body location, treatment, and outcome for dogs and cats with sewing needle foreign bodies.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—65 dogs and cats with sewing needle foreign bodies.

Procedures—Medical records of 27 dogs and 38 cats examined because of sewing needle foreign bodies from January 2000 to February 2012 were reviewed for signalment, medical history, physical examination findings, diagnostic test results, interval from witnessed exposure and radiographic imaging to definitive treatment, definitive treatment, sewing needle location, complications, and outcome.

Results—7 (10.8%) animals had sewing needles in extragastrointestinal locations that were not causing clinical signs. The remaining 58 (89.2%) animals had known sewing needle exposure or acute clinical signs associated with ingestion. The esophageal and gastric regions were the most common location for a sewing needle (10/21 [47.6%] dogs; 19/37 [51.4%] cats), followed by the oropharynx (7/21 [33.3%] dogs; 11/37 [29.7%] cats) and small and large intestines (4/21 [19.0%] dogs; 7/37 [18.9%] cats). Gastrointestinal perforation was detected in 10 of 58 (17.2%) animals (5/21 [23.8%] dogs; 5/37 [13.5%] cats). Sewing needles in the esophagus and stomach were successfully removed endoscopically in 8 of 9 dogs and 18 of 19 cats. Survival rate was 98.1% (51/52) for animals receiving definitive treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Endoscopic removal of ingested sewing needles was highly successful and should be recommended to prevent gastrointestinal tract perforation and associated morbidity. Prognosis for dogs and cats receiving definitive treatment for sewing needle foreign body ingestion was excellent.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To examine weight estimations by veterinarians, veterinary nurses, and veterinary students to determine the accuracy of weight estimation in a veterinary emergency department. Secondary objectives included an initial evaluation of how body condition score (BCS), hair coat length, and hospital position of the estimator impacted accuracy of weight estimation.

ANIMALS

101 dogs and 28 cats that presented to the emergency department from October 17, 2017, to September 3, 2019.

PROCEDURES

A written form was prospectively distributed to veterinarians, veterinary nurses, and veterinary students asking them to estimate a patient weight. Additional information about the patient, including estimated hair length and BCS, was recorded.

RESULTS

As dogs’ weights increased, all estimators underestimated the patients’ weight. As BCS increased, dogs’ weights were underestimated by veterinary students. Longer hair coat statistically significantly impacted accurate weight estimation in dogs. In cats, as BCS increased, veterinarians and veterinary nurses overestimated patient weight. Only 32% (32/101) and 20% (6/28) of weight estimations in dogs and cats, respectively, were within 10% of the patient’s actual weight.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Veterinarians, veterinary nurses, and veterinary students may not be reliable estimators of patient weight in the emergency department, especially with overweight animals. Prompt measurement of weight, if possible, is important for appropriate patient care.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association