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Objective—To identify factors associated with increased risk of being bitten by a dog or cat in a veterinary teaching hospital.
Design—Unmatched case-control study.
Study population—207 animal caregivers.
Procedure—Case subjects (n = 75) were any caregiver that reported being bitten by a dog or cat. Control subjects (n = 132) were randomly selected from a list of all caregivers interacting with dogs or cats. Information on the characteristics of the caregivers, characteristics of the dogs and cats, and the nature of the interaction between the dog or cat and the caregiver was obtained by use of self-administered questionnaires.
Results—Caregivers were more likely to be bitten by dogs or cats that had warning signs on their cages indicating the potential to bite or that were considered difficult to handle. Caregivers interacting with cats or with older dogs and cats were more likely to be bitten. Only 37 to 55% of dogs and cats that had characteristics traditionally associated with biting or were considered likely to bite were muzzled.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Muzzling dogs and cats should be considered more frequently. Dogs and cats considered to have the propensity to bite frequently do bite, and precautions, such as muzzling, should be taken if the medical condition or conformation of the dog or cat is amenable to this type of restraint. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:312–316)
Objective—To compare the use of dexmedetomidine hydrochloride, xylazine hydrochloride, and hydrogen peroxide for emesis induction in cats.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—43 client-owned cats for which emesis induction was attempted because of known or suspected toxicant ingestion or recent ingestion of a string foreign body.
Procedures—Data collected from the cats’ medical records included type, dose, and route of administration of emetic agent; outcome of attempted emesis induction; time until emesis or postemesis administration of a reversal agent (to counter sedative effects of the emetic agent); and adverse events.
Results—Emesis induction was attempted by oral administration of hydrogen peroxide (n = 3) or IM or IV administration of xylazine (25 [including 1 cat that had already received hydrogen peroxide]) or dexmedetomidine (16). No cat that received hydrogen peroxide vomited. Emesis was induced in 11 of 25 xylazine-treated cats and in 13 of 16 dexmedetomidine-treated cats. Dexmedetomidine was more likely to cause vomiting than xylazine (OR, 5.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 36). The median dose of dexmedetomidine that caused emesis was 7. 0 μg/kg (3.2 μg/lb; range, 0.96 to 10.0 μg/kg [0.44 to 4.55 μg/lb]). The elapsed time until emesis or postemesis reversal agent administration was recorded for 5 xylazine-treated cats (median interval, 10 minutes [range, 5 to 175 minutes]) and 10 dexmedetomidine-treated cats (median interval, 5 minutes [range, 1 to 12 minutes]). Sedation was the only adverse effect, occurring in 2 xylazine-treated cats and 1 dexmedetomidine-treated cat.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that dexmedetomidine can be used successfully to induce emesis in cats.
Objective—To determine physical examination findings, clinicopathologic changes, and prognosis in dogs with zinc toxicosis.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—19 dogs with zinc toxicosis.
Procedures—Medical records from 1991 through 2003 were searched for animals with a diagnosis of zinc toxicosis.Information concerning signalment, body weight, historical findings, initial owner complaints, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic findings, blood zinc concentrations, source of zinc, treatments given, duration of hospital stay, and outcome was collected.
Results—Records of 19 dogs with zinc toxicosis were reviewed.The most common historical findings were vomiting (n = 14) and pigmenturia (12).The most common clinicopatho logic findings were anemia (n = 19) and hyperbilirubinemia (12).Median age was 1.3 years, and median weight was 5.6 kg (12.3 lb). The prognosis was favorable, with 17 dogs surviving after a median hospital stay of 2 days.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hemolytic anemia as a result of zinc toxicosis appeared to affect young small-breed dogs more frequently than older large-breed dogs.The prognosis with treatment is good, and most affected dogs had a short hospital stay.
Objective—To compare clinical characteristics and laboratory findings of dogs with eclampsia with those of dogs without eclampsia.
Animals—31 dogs with eclampsia (affected) and 31 with dystocia (controls).
Procedure—Information on signalment, type of diet, reproductive history, litter size, time from whelping to eclampsia, body weight, clinical signs, results of physical examination and hematologic and biochemical analyses, response to calcium supplementation, and reccurrence was obtained from the medical records of all dogs with eclampsia evaluated between 1995 and 1998 and compared with information from medical records of 31 of 102 dogs with dystocia evaluated during the same period.
Results—Dogs with eclampsia weighed less, had a smaller body weight-to-litter size ratio, higher rectal temperature and heart and respiratory rates, and lower plasma total solids concentration than control dogs. Ionized calcium concentration was ≤ 0.8 mmol/L for all but 1 of the affected dogs; median concentration for the affected dogs was significantly less than that for control dogs. Six (19%) dogs did not manifest typical clinical signs associated with eclampsia. Twelve (39%) dogs with eclampsia had previous litters; none had a history of eclampsia. Affected dogs were discharged from the hospital within hours after admission, but 3 dogs returned 1 to 3 weeks later because of recurrence of eclampsia.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Eclampsia develops primarily in small-breed dogs with large litters. Plasma ionized calcium concentrations > 0.8 mmol/L in dogs with clinical signs typical of hypocalcemia may indicate that other causes of clinical signs should be considered. In addition, some dogs with eclampsia may have low ionized calcium concentrations and not manifest typical clinical signs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:216–219)
To prospectively compare the effectiveness and any adverse effects of apo-morphine administered SC or IV for induction of emesis in dogs.
42 client-owned dogs.
Dogs for which emesis induction was deemed appropriate by the attending clinician were prospectively randomized to receive apomorphine (0.03 mg/kg [0.01 mg/lb]) either SC (n = 20) or IV (22). Data collected included whether emesis was successfully induced, time from drug administration to emesis, number of emetic events, and adverse events (eg, sedation, protracted vomiting, or other).
Of the 20 dogs given apomorphine SC, 16 (80%) vomited. Of the 22 dogs given apomorphine IV, 18 (82%) vomited. With regard to route of administration, the number of dogs in which emesis was induced did not differ significantly. Median time to the first emetic event was 13.5 minutes (range, 3 to 32 minutes) in the SC treatment group and 2 minutes (range, 1 to 5 minutes) in the IV treatment group; the difference was significant. There was no significant difference in the number of emetic events or frequency of adverse events between the 2 groups.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Apomorphine administered SC or IV reliably induced emesis in dogs. Compared with SC administration of apomorphine, the time from drug administration to emesis associated with IV administration was significantly shorter, a finding that has clinical importance. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021;259:283–287)
Objective—To evaluate the effects of twice-daily glargine insulin administration in dogs with diabetes mellitus.
Design—Open-label, prospective clinical trial.
Animals—10 dogs with naturally occurring diabetes mellitus.
Procedures—Dogs with poorly regulated or newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus were enrolled if their owners agreed to return them to the hospital at 1- to 3-week intervals for 4 follow-up visits. During each follow-up visit, blood glucose concentrations were measured every 2 hours for at least 10 hours after feeding a diet high in insoluble fiber and after administration of glargine insulin (time 0). The initial glargine insulin dosage was 0.5 U/kg (0.23 U/lb) SC twice daily.
Results—All dogs had well-regulated diabetes mellitus at a mean ± SD of 38 ± 14 days (median, 43 days; range, 7 to 55 days) following study enrollment. At the time diabetes mellitus was well regulated, mean glargine insulin dosage was 0.5 ± 0.15 U/kg (0.23 ± 0.068 U/lb; median, 0.5 U/kg; range, 0.32 to 0.67 U/kg [0.15 to 0.30 U/lb]) twice daily, and 3 dogs were receiving a dosage < 0.4 U/kg (0.18 U/lb). In dogs with well-regulated diabetes mellitus, the mean minimum blood glucose concentration (163 ± 89 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval, 100 to 227 mg/dL) was detected 2 hours after administration of glargine insulin and the mean maximum blood glucose concentration (230 ± 95 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval, 64 to 323 mg/dL) was detected 12 hours after administration of glargine insulin. There was no significant difference between mean minimum and mean maximum blood glucose concentrations nor were there significant differences between blood glucose concentrations measured at other time points. Blood glucose concentration < 80 mg/dL was measured at least once in 7 of 10 dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of the present study suggested that, in diabetic dogs fed a diet high in insoluble fiber, glargine insulin is a peakless insulin that does not induce a distinct blood glucose concentration nadir. For glargine insulin, 0.3 U/kg (0.136 U/lb) SC twice daily is recommended as an initial dosage.
Objective—To characterize clinical signs, diagnostic test results, foreign body location, treatment, and outcome for dogs and cats with sewing needle foreign bodies.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—65 dogs and cats with sewing needle foreign bodies.
Procedures—Medical records of 27 dogs and 38 cats examined because of sewing needle foreign bodies from January 2000 to February 2012 were reviewed for signalment, medical history, physical examination findings, diagnostic test results, interval from witnessed exposure and radiographic imaging to definitive treatment, definitive treatment, sewing needle location, complications, and outcome.
Results—7 (10.8%) animals had sewing needles in extragastrointestinal locations that were not causing clinical signs. The remaining 58 (89.2%) animals had known sewing needle exposure or acute clinical signs associated with ingestion. The esophageal and gastric regions were the most common location for a sewing needle (10/21 [47.6%] dogs; 19/37 [51.4%] cats), followed by the oropharynx (7/21 [33.3%] dogs; 11/37 [29.7%] cats) and small and large intestines (4/21 [19.0%] dogs; 7/37 [18.9%] cats). Gastrointestinal perforation was detected in 10 of 58 (17.2%) animals (5/21 [23.8%] dogs; 5/37 [13.5%] cats). Sewing needles in the esophagus and stomach were successfully removed endoscopically in 8 of 9 dogs and 18 of 19 cats. Survival rate was 98.1% (51/52) for animals receiving definitive treatment.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Endoscopic removal of ingested sewing needles was highly successful and should be recommended to prevent gastrointestinal tract perforation and associated morbidity. Prognosis for dogs and cats receiving definitive treatment for sewing needle foreign body ingestion was excellent.
Objective—To compare rectal versus axillary temperatures in dogs and cats.
Design—Prospective observational study.
Animals—94 dogs and 31 cats.
Procedures—Paired axillary and rectal temperatures were measured in random order with a standardized method. Animal signalment, initial complaint, blood pressure, blood lactate concentration, and variables associated with vascular perfusion and coat were evaluated for associations with axillary and rectal temperatures.
Results—Axillary temperature was positively correlated with rectal temperature (ρ = 0.75 in both species). Median axillary temperature (38.4°C [101.1°F] in dogs, and 38.4°C [101.2°F] in cats) was significantly different from median rectal temperature in dogs (38.9°C [102.0°F]) but not in cats (38.6°C [101.5°F]). Median rectal-axillary gradient (difference) was 0.4°C (0.7°F; range, −1.3° to 2.3°C [−2.4° to 4.1°F]) in dogs and 0.17°C (0.3°F; range −1.1° to 1.6°C [−1.9° to 3°F]) in cats. Sensitivity and specificity for detection of hyperthermia with axillary temperature were 57% and 100%, respectively, in dogs and 33% and 100%, respectively, in cats; sensitivity and specificity for detection of hypothermia were 86% and 87%, respectively, in dogs and 80% and 96%, respectively, in cats. Body weight (ρ = 0.514) and body condition score (ρ = 0.431) were correlated with rectal-axillary gradient in cats.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although axillary and rectal temperatures were correlated in dogs and cats, a large gradient was present between rectal temperature and axillary temperature, suggesting that axillary temperature should not be used as a substitute for rectal temperature.
To examine weight estimations by veterinarians, veterinary nurses, and veterinary students to determine the accuracy of weight estimation in a veterinary emergency department. Secondary objectives included an initial evaluation of how body condition score (BCS), hair coat length, and hospital position of the estimator impacted accuracy of weight estimation.
101 dogs and 28 cats that presented to the emergency department from October 17, 2017, to September 3, 2019.
A written form was prospectively distributed to veterinarians, veterinary nurses, and veterinary students asking them to estimate a patient weight. Additional information about the patient, including estimated hair length and BCS, was recorded.
As dogs’ weights increased, all estimators underestimated the patients’ weight. As BCS increased, dogs’ weights were underestimated by veterinary students. Longer hair coat statistically significantly impacted accurate weight estimation in dogs. In cats, as BCS increased, veterinarians and veterinary nurses overestimated patient weight. Only 32% (32/101) and 20% (6/28) of weight estimations in dogs and cats, respectively, were within 10% of the patient’s actual weight.
Veterinarians, veterinary nurses, and veterinary students may not be reliable estimators of patient weight in the emergency department, especially with overweight animals. Prompt measurement of weight, if possible, is important for appropriate patient care.
Objective—To determine the association of blood lactate concentration with physically assessed perfusion variables, systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP), and outcome in cats evaluated by an emergency service.
Design—Prospective, observational study.
Procedures—Initial blood lactate concentration and SAP (prior to any therapeutic interventions) as well as physically assessed perfusion variables (mucous membrane color, capillary refill time, peripheral pulse quality, heart rate, and rectal temperature) were determined. Cats were categorized as having no shock, mild to moderate shock, or severe shock. Outcomes were recorded. Associations between lactate concentration and these variables were assessed.
Results—Median initial blood lactate concentration was 2.7 mmol/L (range, 0.5 to 19.3 mmol/L); cats with white mucous membranes, abnormal peripheral pulse quality, and hypothermia had significantly higher lactate concentration than did cats without these findings. Median lactate concentration for cats with SAP < 90 mm Hg (3.3 mmol/L) was significantly higher than that of cats with SAP ≥ 90 mm Hg (2.35 mmol/L). Cats with severe shock had significantly higher lactate concentration (4.3 mmol/L) than did cats in other shock categories. Median initial lactate concentration at admission did not differ between cats that did (2.45 mmol/L) and did not (3.2 mmol/L) survive to discharge from the hospital. Change in lactate concentration during hospitalization (when applicable) was not associated with outcome.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings indicated that blood lactate concentration, together with physical examination findings and SAP, may be a useful tool for identifying abnormalities in tissue oxygen delivery in cats. However, lactate concentrations were not associated with outcome in the present study.