Objective—To identify factors associated with
increased risk of being bitten by a dog or cat in a veterinary
Design—Unmatched case-control study.
Study population—207 animal caregivers.
Procedure—Case subjects (n = 75) were any caregiver
that reported being bitten by a dog or cat.
Control subjects (n = 132) were randomly selected
from a list of all caregivers interacting with dogs or
cats. Information on the characteristics of the caregivers,
characteristics of the dogs and cats, and the
nature of the interaction between the dog or cat and
the caregiver was obtained by use of self-administered
Results—Caregivers were more likely to be bitten by
dogs or cats that had warning signs on their cages
indicating the potential to bite or that were considered
difficult to handle. Caregivers interacting with
cats or with older dogs and cats were more likely to
be bitten. Only 37 to 55% of dogs and cats that had
characteristics traditionally associated with biting or
were considered likely to bite were muzzled.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Muzzling
dogs and cats should be considered more frequently.
Dogs and cats considered to have the propensity to
bite frequently do bite, and precautions, such as muzzling,
should be taken if the medical condition or conformation
of the dog or cat is amenable to this type of
restraint. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:312–316)
Objective—To compare the use of dexmedetomidine hydrochloride, xylazine hydrochloride, and hydrogen peroxide for emesis induction in cats.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—43 client-owned cats for which emesis induction was attempted because of known or suspected toxicant ingestion or recent ingestion of a string foreign body.
Procedures—Data collected from the cats’ medical records included type, dose, and route of administration of emetic agent; outcome of attempted emesis induction; time until emesis or postemesis administration of a reversal agent (to counter sedative effects of the emetic agent); and adverse events.
Results—Emesis induction was attempted by oral administration of hydrogen peroxide (n = 3) or IM or IV administration of xylazine (25 [including 1 cat that had already received hydrogen peroxide]) or dexmedetomidine (16). No cat that received hydrogen peroxide vomited. Emesis was induced in 11 of 25 xylazine-treated cats and in 13 of 16 dexmedetomidine-treated cats. Dexmedetomidine was more likely to cause vomiting than xylazine (OR, 5.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 36). The median dose of dexmedetomidine that caused emesis was 7. 0 μg/kg (3.2 μg/lb; range, 0.96 to 10.0 μg/kg [0.44 to 4.55 μg/lb]). The elapsed time until emesis or postemesis reversal agent administration was recorded for 5 xylazine-treated cats (median interval, 10 minutes [range, 5 to 175 minutes]) and 10 dexmedetomidine-treated cats (median interval, 5 minutes [range, 1 to 12 minutes]). Sedation was the only adverse effect, occurring in 2 xylazine-treated cats and 1 dexmedetomidine-treated cat.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that dexmedetomidine can be used successfully to induce emesis in cats.
Objective—To compare clinical characteristics and
laboratory findings of dogs with eclampsia with those
of dogs without eclampsia.
Animals—31 dogs with eclampsia (affected) and 31
with dystocia (controls).
Procedure—Information on signalment, type of diet,
reproductive history, litter size, time from whelping to
eclampsia, body weight, clinical signs, results of physical
examination and hematologic and biochemical
analyses, response to calcium supplementation, and
reccurrence was obtained from the medical records
of all dogs with eclampsia evaluated between 1995
and 1998 and compared with information from medical
records of 31 of 102 dogs with dystocia evaluated
during the same period.
Results—Dogs with eclampsia weighed less, had a
smaller body weight-to-litter size ratio, higher rectal
temperature and heart and respiratory rates, and
lower plasma total solids concentration than control
dogs. Ionized calcium concentration was ≤ 0.8
mmol/L for all but 1 of the affected dogs; median concentration
for the affected dogs was significantly less
than that for control dogs. Six (19%) dogs did not
manifest typical clinical signs associated with eclampsia.
Twelve (39%) dogs with eclampsia had previous
litters; none had a history of eclampsia. Affected dogs
were discharged from the hospital within hours after
admission, but 3 dogs returned 1 to 3 weeks later
because of recurrence of eclampsia.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Eclampsia
develops primarily in small-breed dogs with large litters.
Plasma ionized calcium concentrations > 0.8
mmol/L in dogs with clinical signs typical of hypocalcemia
may indicate that other causes of clinical signs
should be considered. In addition, some dogs with
eclampsia may have low ionized calcium concentrations
and not manifest typical clinical signs. (J Am Vet
Med Assoc 2000;217:216–219)
Objective—To determine physical examination findings, clinicopathologic changes, and prognosis in dogs with zinc toxicosis.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—19 dogs with zinc toxicosis.
Procedures—Medical records from 1991 through 2003 were searched for animals with a diagnosis of zinc toxicosis.Information concerning signalment, body weight, historical findings, initial owner complaints, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic findings, blood zinc concentrations, source of zinc, treatments given, duration of hospital stay, and outcome was collected.
Results—Records of 19 dogs with zinc toxicosis were reviewed.The most common historical findings were vomiting (n = 14) and pigmenturia (12).The most common clinicopatho logic findings were anemia (n = 19) and hyperbilirubinemia (12).Median age was 1.3 years, and median weight was 5.6 kg (12.3 lb). The prognosis was favorable, with 17 dogs surviving after a median hospital stay of 2 days.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hemolytic anemia as a result of zinc toxicosis appeared to affect young small-breed dogs more frequently than older large-breed dogs.The prognosis with treatment is good, and most affected dogs had a short hospital stay.
To prospectively compare the effectiveness and any adverse effects of apo-morphine administered SC or IV for induction of emesis in dogs.
42 client-owned dogs.
Dogs for which emesis induction was deemed appropriate by the attending clinician were prospectively randomized to receive apomorphine (0.03 mg/kg [0.01 mg/lb]) either SC (n = 20) or IV (22). Data collected included whether emesis was successfully induced, time from drug administration to emesis, number of emetic events, and adverse events (eg, sedation, protracted vomiting, or other).
Of the 20 dogs given apomorphine SC, 16 (80%) vomited. Of the 22 dogs given apomorphine IV, 18 (82%) vomited. With regard to route of administration, the number of dogs in which emesis was induced did not differ significantly. Median time to the first emetic event was 13.5 minutes (range, 3 to 32 minutes) in the SC treatment group and 2 minutes (range, 1 to 5 minutes) in the IV treatment group; the difference was significant. There was no significant difference in the number of emetic events or frequency of adverse events between the 2 groups.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Apomorphine administered SC or IV reliably induced emesis in dogs. Compared with SC administration of apomorphine, the time from drug administration to emesis associated with IV administration was significantly shorter, a finding that has clinical importance. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021;259:283–287)
Objective—To identify risk factors associated with
development of pyothorax in cats, assess survival
rates for cats that are treated, determine prognostic
indicators, and determine recurrence rates.
Animals—80 cats with pyothorax and 212 control
Procedure—History; month of evaluation; physical
examination findings; results of hematologic, serum
biochemical, and retrovirus testing; radiographic findings;
outcome; recurrence rate; and necropsy findings
were recorded. For control cats, age, sex,
breed, indoor versus outdoor status, vaccination history,
and single- versus multi-cat household status
Results—Cats from multi-cat households were 3.8
times as likely (95% confidence interval, 1.9 to 8.2) to
develop pyothorax, compared with cats from singlecat
households. Indoor or outdoor status was not a
risk factor. Cats with pyothorax were significantly
younger (mean, 3.83 ± 3.43 years) than controls
(mean, 5.62 ± 5.27 years). Nonsurvivors had significantly
lower heart rates than survivors. Hypersalivation
was significantly more common in nonsurvivors
(11/39; 26.8%) than survivors (1/39; 3%).
Overall, 48.8% (39/80) of cats survived. When cats
that were euthanatized without treatment were
excluded from analyses, the survival rate was 66.1%
(39/59). Pyothorax recurred in 1 of 17 cats for which
follow-up information was obtained.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cats with
pyothorax that received treatment had a fair to good
prognosis, with low recurrence rates in survivors.
Hypersalivation and low heart rate were associated
with worse clinical outcome. Cats with pyothorax
were likely to come from multi-cat households. (J Am
Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:819–824)
OBJECTIVE To compare dialysate sodium concentration and patient plasma sodium concentration of dogs during intermittent hemodialysis treatments.
SAMPLE 211 intermittent hemodialysis treatments performed on 40 client-owned dogs for the management of dialysis-dependent uremia.
PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed to determine the plasma sodium concentration of each dog before and after routine hemodialysis treatments. Associations between detected changes in plasma sodium concentration and dialysate sodium concentration were evaluated by use of Spearman rank correlations and linear regression analysis.
RESULTS Significant linear correlations were found between the dialysate sodium concentration and patient sodium concentration. The starting dialysate-to-patient sodium gradient was associated with the strongest correlation to the change in patient sodium concentration at the end of the dialysis session. Modest correlations existed between the dialysate sodium concentration and postdialysis patient sodium concentration as well as between the predialysis dialysate-to-patient sodium gradient and postdialysis dialysate-to-patient sodium gradient.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The dialysate sodium concentration was correlated with the patient sodium concentration in dogs, and the dialysate-to-patient sodium gradient could be used to further refine this association to predict the postdialysis patient sodium concentration and potentially manage dysnatremia during hemodialysis. Prospective studies should be performed to determine how these associations can be used to correct aberrations as well as to avoid unwanted alterations in patient sodium concentrations.
Objective—To determine whether hyperglycemia is
associated with head trauma in dogs and cats and
whether the degree of hyperglycemia corresponds to
severity of neurologic injury or outcome.
Animals—52 dogs and 70 cats with head trauma and
122 age- and species-matched control dogs and cats.
Procedure—Severity of head trauma was classified
as mild, moderate, or severe. Blood glucose concentrations
recorded within 1 hour after admission were
compared between case and control animals and
among groups when case animals were grouped on
the basis of severity of head trauma or outcome.
Results—Blood glucose concentration was significantly
associated with severity of head trauma in
dogs and cats and was significantly higher in dogs
and cats with head trauma than in the control animals.
However, blood glucose concentration was not
associated with outcome.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that dogs and cats with head trauma may have
hyperglycemia and that degree of hyperglycemia was
associated with severity of head trauma. However,
degree of hyperglycemia was not associated with
outcome for dogs and cats with head trauma.
Because hyperglycemia can potentiate neurologic
injury, iatrogenic hyperglycemia should be avoided in
patients with head trauma. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
Objective—To evaluate the effects of twice-daily glargine insulin administration in dogs with diabetes mellitus.
Design—Open-label, prospective clinical trial.
Animals—10 dogs with naturally occurring diabetes mellitus.
Procedures—Dogs with poorly regulated or newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus were enrolled if their owners agreed to return them to the hospital at 1- to 3-week intervals for 4 follow-up visits. During each follow-up visit, blood glucose concentrations were measured every 2 hours for at least 10 hours after feeding a diet high in insoluble fiber and after administration of glargine insulin (time 0). The initial glargine insulin dosage was 0.5 U/kg (0.23 U/lb) SC twice daily.
Results—All dogs had well-regulated diabetes mellitus at a mean ± SD of 38 ± 14 days (median, 43 days; range, 7 to 55 days) following study enrollment. At the time diabetes mellitus was well regulated, mean glargine insulin dosage was 0.5 ± 0.15 U/kg (0.23 ± 0.068 U/lb; median, 0.5 U/kg; range, 0.32 to 0.67 U/kg [0.15 to 0.30 U/lb]) twice daily, and 3 dogs were receiving a dosage < 0.4 U/kg (0.18 U/lb). In dogs with well-regulated diabetes mellitus, the mean minimum blood glucose concentration (163 ± 89 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval, 100 to 227 mg/dL) was detected 2 hours after administration of glargine insulin and the mean maximum blood glucose concentration (230 ± 95 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval, 64 to 323 mg/dL) was detected 12 hours after administration of glargine insulin. There was no significant difference between mean minimum and mean maximum blood glucose concentrations nor were there significant differences between blood glucose concentrations measured at other time points. Blood glucose concentration < 80 mg/dL was measured at least once in 7 of 10 dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of the present study suggested that, in diabetic dogs fed a diet high in insoluble fiber, glargine insulin is a peakless insulin that does not induce a distinct blood glucose concentration nadir. For glargine insulin, 0.3 U/kg (0.136 U/lb) SC twice daily is recommended as an initial dosage.
OBJECTIVE To test for an association between indwelling urethral catheter placement in cats with urethral obstruction (UO) and the short-term (30-day) risk of recurrent urethral obstruction (RUO).
DESIGN Prospective cohort study.
ANIMALS 107 client-owned male cats with UO.
PROCEDURES Owners were offered standard care for their cats, including hospitalization, placement of an indwelling urethral catheter, IV fluid therapy, and other supportive treatments (inpatient group). One-time catheterization and outpatient care were offered (outpatient group) if standard care was declined. Data regarding signalment, measures of metabolic compromise and urinalysis findings at enrollment, catheterization-related variables, and supportive treatments of interest were collected. Risk of RUO ≤ 30 days after urethral catheter removal was determined for the outpatient vs inpatient group by OR and 95% confidence interval calculation. Other variables were compared between cats that did and did not develop RUO with Fisher exact and trend tests.
RESULTS 91 cats completed the study; 19 (5/46 [11%] inpatients and 14/45 [31%] outpatients) developed RUO. Risk of RUO was significantly greater for cats of the outpatient group (OR, 3.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 11.4). Among inpatients, increasingly abnormal urine color at the time of catheter removal was significantly associated with RUO. No other significant associations were identified.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Hospitalization and indwelling catheterization significantly reduced the risk for RUO ≤ 30 days after treatment for the population studied. Results suggested that removal of an indwelling catheter before urine appears grossly normal may be associated with development of RUO. One-time catheterization with outpatient care was inferior to the standard care protocol but was successful in many cats and may be a reasonable alternative when clients cannot pursue standard care.