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Abstract

Objective—To identify factors associated with increased risk of being bitten by a dog or cat in a veterinary teaching hospital.

Design—Unmatched case-control study.

Study population—207 animal caregivers.

Procedure—Case subjects (n = 75) were any caregiver that reported being bitten by a dog or cat. Control subjects (n = 132) were randomly selected from a list of all caregivers interacting with dogs or cats. Information on the characteristics of the caregivers, characteristics of the dogs and cats, and the nature of the interaction between the dog or cat and the caregiver was obtained by use of self-administered questionnaires.

Results—Caregivers were more likely to be bitten by dogs or cats that had warning signs on their cages indicating the potential to bite or that were considered difficult to handle. Caregivers interacting with cats or with older dogs and cats were more likely to be bitten. Only 37 to 55% of dogs and cats that had characteristics traditionally associated with biting or were considered likely to bite were muzzled.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Muzzling dogs and cats should be considered more frequently. Dogs and cats considered to have the propensity to bite frequently do bite, and precautions, such as muzzling, should be taken if the medical condition or conformation of the dog or cat is amenable to this type of restraint. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:312–316)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare the use of dexmedetomidine hydrochloride, xylazine hydrochloride, and hydrogen peroxide for emesis induction in cats.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—43 client-owned cats for which emesis induction was attempted because of known or suspected toxicant ingestion or recent ingestion of a string foreign body.

Procedures—Data collected from the cats’ medical records included type, dose, and route of administration of emetic agent; outcome of attempted emesis induction; time until emesis or postemesis administration of a reversal agent (to counter sedative effects of the emetic agent); and adverse events.

Results—Emesis induction was attempted by oral administration of hydrogen peroxide (n = 3) or IM or IV administration of xylazine (25 [including 1 cat that had already received hydrogen peroxide]) or dexmedetomidine (16). No cat that received hydrogen peroxide vomited. Emesis was induced in 11 of 25 xylazine-treated cats and in 13 of 16 dexmedetomidine-treated cats. Dexmedetomidine was more likely to cause vomiting than xylazine (OR, 5.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 36). The median dose of dexmedetomidine that caused emesis was 7. 0 μg/kg (3.2 μg/lb; range, 0.96 to 10.0 μg/kg [0.44 to 4.55 μg/lb]). The elapsed time until emesis or postemesis reversal agent administration was recorded for 5 xylazine-treated cats (median interval, 10 minutes [range, 5 to 175 minutes]) and 10 dexmedetomidine-treated cats (median interval, 5 minutes [range, 1 to 12 minutes]). Sedation was the only adverse effect, occurring in 2 xylazine-treated cats and 1 dexmedetomidine-treated cat.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that dexmedetomidine can be used successfully to induce emesis in cats.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare clinical characteristics and laboratory findings of dogs with eclampsia with those of dogs without eclampsia.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—31 dogs with eclampsia (affected) and 31 with dystocia (controls).

Procedure—Information on signalment, type of diet, reproductive history, litter size, time from whelping to eclampsia, body weight, clinical signs, results of physical examination and hematologic and biochemical analyses, response to calcium supplementation, and reccurrence was obtained from the medical records of all dogs with eclampsia evaluated between 1995 and 1998 and compared with information from medical records of 31 of 102 dogs with dystocia evaluated during the same period.

Results—Dogs with eclampsia weighed less, had a smaller body weight-to-litter size ratio, higher rectal temperature and heart and respiratory rates, and lower plasma total solids concentration than control dogs. Ionized calcium concentration was ≤ 0.8 mmol/L for all but 1 of the affected dogs; median concentration for the affected dogs was significantly less than that for control dogs. Six (19%) dogs did not manifest typical clinical signs associated with eclampsia. Twelve (39%) dogs with eclampsia had previous litters; none had a history of eclampsia. Affected dogs were discharged from the hospital within hours after admission, but 3 dogs returned 1 to 3 weeks later because of recurrence of eclampsia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Eclampsia develops primarily in small-breed dogs with large litters. Plasma ionized calcium concentrations > 0.8 mmol/L in dogs with clinical signs typical of hypocalcemia may indicate that other causes of clinical signs should be considered. In addition, some dogs with eclampsia may have low ionized calcium concentrations and not manifest typical clinical signs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:216–219)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine physical examination findings, clinicopathologic changes, and prognosis in dogs with zinc toxicosis.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—19 dogs with zinc toxicosis.

Procedures—Medical records from 1991 through 2003 were searched for animals with a diagnosis of zinc toxicosis.Information concerning signalment, body weight, historical findings, initial owner complaints, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic findings, blood zinc concentrations, source of zinc, treatments given, duration of hospital stay, and outcome was collected.

Results—Records of 19 dogs with zinc toxicosis were reviewed.The most common historical findings were vomiting (n = 14) and pigmenturia (12).The most common clinicopatho logic findings were anemia (n = 19) and hyperbilirubinemia (12).Median age was 1.3 years, and median weight was 5.6 kg (12.3 lb). The prognosis was favorable, with 17 dogs surviving after a median hospital stay of 2 days.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hemolytic anemia as a result of zinc toxicosis appeared to affect young small-breed dogs more frequently than older large-breed dogs.The prognosis with treatment is good, and most affected dogs had a short hospital stay.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To prospectively compare the effectiveness and any adverse effects of apo-morphine administered SC or IV for induction of emesis in dogs.

ANIMALS

42 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES

Dogs for which emesis induction was deemed appropriate by the attending clinician were prospectively randomized to receive apomorphine (0.03 mg/kg [0.01 mg/lb]) either SC (n = 20) or IV (22). Data collected included whether emesis was successfully induced, time from drug administration to emesis, number of emetic events, and adverse events (eg, sedation, protracted vomiting, or other).

RESULTS

Of the 20 dogs given apomorphine SC, 16 (80%) vomited. Of the 22 dogs given apomorphine IV, 18 (82%) vomited. With regard to route of administration, the number of dogs in which emesis was induced did not differ significantly. Median time to the first emetic event was 13.5 minutes (range, 3 to 32 minutes) in the SC treatment group and 2 minutes (range, 1 to 5 minutes) in the IV treatment group; the difference was significant. There was no significant difference in the number of emetic events or frequency of adverse events between the 2 groups.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Apomorphine administered SC or IV reliably induced emesis in dogs. Compared with SC administration of apomorphine, the time from drug administration to emesis associated with IV administration was significantly shorter, a finding that has clinical importance. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021;259:283–287)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify risk factors associated with development of pyothorax in cats, assess survival rates for cats that are treated, determine prognostic indicators, and determine recurrence rates.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—80 cats with pyothorax and 212 control cats.

Procedure—History; month of evaluation; physical examination findings; results of hematologic, serum biochemical, and retrovirus testing; radiographic findings; outcome; recurrence rate; and necropsy findings were recorded. For control cats, age, sex, breed, indoor versus outdoor status, vaccination history, and single- versus multi-cat household status were recorded.

Results—Cats from multi-cat households were 3.8 times as likely (95% confidence interval, 1.9 to 8.2) to develop pyothorax, compared with cats from singlecat households. Indoor or outdoor status was not a risk factor. Cats with pyothorax were significantly younger (mean, 3.83 ± 3.43 years) than controls (mean, 5.62 ± 5.27 years). Nonsurvivors had significantly lower heart rates than survivors. Hypersalivation was significantly more common in nonsurvivors (11/39; 26.8%) than survivors (1/39; 3%). Overall, 48.8% (39/80) of cats survived. When cats that were euthanatized without treatment were excluded from analyses, the survival rate was 66.1% (39/59). Pyothorax recurred in 1 of 17 cats for which follow-up information was obtained.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cats with pyothorax that received treatment had a fair to good prognosis, with low recurrence rates in survivors. Hypersalivation and low heart rate were associated with worse clinical outcome. Cats with pyothorax were likely to come from multi-cat households. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:819–824)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare dialysate sodium concentration and patient plasma sodium concentration of dogs during intermittent hemodialysis treatments.

SAMPLE 211 intermittent hemodialysis treatments performed on 40 client-owned dogs for the management of dialysis-dependent uremia.

PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed to determine the plasma sodium concentration of each dog before and after routine hemodialysis treatments. Associations between detected changes in plasma sodium concentration and dialysate sodium concentration were evaluated by use of Spearman rank correlations and linear regression analysis.

RESULTS Significant linear correlations were found between the dialysate sodium concentration and patient sodium concentration. The starting dialysate-to-patient sodium gradient was associated with the strongest correlation to the change in patient sodium concentration at the end of the dialysis session. Modest correlations existed between the dialysate sodium concentration and postdialysis patient sodium concentration as well as between the predialysis dialysate-to-patient sodium gradient and postdialysis dialysate-to-patient sodium gradient.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The dialysate sodium concentration was correlated with the patient sodium concentration in dogs, and the dialysate-to-patient sodium gradient could be used to further refine this association to predict the postdialysis patient sodium concentration and potentially manage dysnatremia during hemodialysis. Prospective studies should be performed to determine how these associations can be used to correct aberrations as well as to avoid unwanted alterations in patient sodium concentrations.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether hyperglycemia is associated with head trauma in dogs and cats and whether the degree of hyperglycemia corresponds to severity of neurologic injury or outcome.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—52 dogs and 70 cats with head trauma and 122 age- and species-matched control dogs and cats.

Procedure—Severity of head trauma was classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Blood glucose concentrations recorded within 1 hour after admission were compared between case and control animals and among groups when case animals were grouped on the basis of severity of head trauma or outcome.

Results—Blood glucose concentration was significantly associated with severity of head trauma in dogs and cats and was significantly higher in dogs and cats with head trauma than in the control animals. However, blood glucose concentration was not associated with outcome.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that dogs and cats with head trauma may have hyperglycemia and that degree of hyperglycemia was associated with severity of head trauma. However, degree of hyperglycemia was not associated with outcome for dogs and cats with head trauma. Because hyperglycemia can potentiate neurologic injury, iatrogenic hyperglycemia should be avoided in patients with head trauma. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1124–1129)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of twice-daily glargine insulin administration in dogs with diabetes mellitus.

Design—Open-label, prospective clinical trial.

Animals—10 dogs with naturally occurring diabetes mellitus.

Procedures—Dogs with poorly regulated or newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus were enrolled if their owners agreed to return them to the hospital at 1- to 3-week intervals for 4 follow-up visits. During each follow-up visit, blood glucose concentrations were measured every 2 hours for at least 10 hours after feeding a diet high in insoluble fiber and after administration of glargine insulin (time 0). The initial glargine insulin dosage was 0.5 U/kg (0.23 U/lb) SC twice daily.

Results—All dogs had well-regulated diabetes mellitus at a mean ± SD of 38 ± 14 days (median, 43 days; range, 7 to 55 days) following study enrollment. At the time diabetes mellitus was well regulated, mean glargine insulin dosage was 0.5 ± 0.15 U/kg (0.23 ± 0.068 U/lb; median, 0.5 U/kg; range, 0.32 to 0.67 U/kg [0.15 to 0.30 U/lb]) twice daily, and 3 dogs were receiving a dosage < 0.4 U/kg (0.18 U/lb). In dogs with well-regulated diabetes mellitus, the mean minimum blood glucose concentration (163 ± 89 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval, 100 to 227 mg/dL) was detected 2 hours after administration of glargine insulin and the mean maximum blood glucose concentration (230 ± 95 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval, 64 to 323 mg/dL) was detected 12 hours after administration of glargine insulin. There was no significant difference between mean minimum and mean maximum blood glucose concentrations nor were there significant differences between blood glucose concentrations measured at other time points. Blood glucose concentration < 80 mg/dL was measured at least once in 7 of 10 dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of the present study suggested that, in diabetic dogs fed a diet high in insoluble fiber, glargine insulin is a peakless insulin that does not induce a distinct blood glucose concentration nadir. For glargine insulin, 0.3 U/kg (0.136 U/lb) SC twice daily is recommended as an initial dosage.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To test for an association between indwelling urethral catheter placement in cats with urethral obstruction (UO) and the short-term (30-day) risk of recurrent urethral obstruction (RUO).

DESIGN Prospective cohort study.

ANIMALS 107 client-owned male cats with UO.

PROCEDURES Owners were offered standard care for their cats, including hospitalization, placement of an indwelling urethral catheter, IV fluid therapy, and other supportive treatments (inpatient group). One-time catheterization and outpatient care were offered (outpatient group) if standard care was declined. Data regarding signalment, measures of metabolic compromise and urinalysis findings at enrollment, catheterization-related variables, and supportive treatments of interest were collected. Risk of RUO ≤ 30 days after urethral catheter removal was determined for the outpatient vs inpatient group by OR and 95% confidence interval calculation. Other variables were compared between cats that did and did not develop RUO with Fisher exact and trend tests.

RESULTS 91 cats completed the study; 19 (5/46 [11%] inpatients and 14/45 [31%] outpatients) developed RUO. Risk of RUO was significantly greater for cats of the outpatient group (OR, 3.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 11.4). Among inpatients, increasingly abnormal urine color at the time of catheter removal was significantly associated with RUO. No other significant associations were identified.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Hospitalization and indwelling catheterization significantly reduced the risk for RUO ≤ 30 days after treatment for the population studied. Results suggested that removal of an indwelling catheter before urine appears grossly normal may be associated with development of RUO. One-time catheterization with outpatient care was inferior to the standard care protocol but was successful in many cats and may be a reasonable alternative when clients cannot pursue standard care.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association