OBJECTIVE To compare improvements in values for periodontal disease indices in dogs following treatment with closed root planing (CRP) alone, CRP with concurrent 8.5% doxycycline hyclate gel application, and CRP with concurrent 2% clindamycin hydrochloride reverse-polymer hydrogel application.
ANIMALS 34 client-owned dogs with periodontal pockets measuring 3.5 to 5.5 mm deep.
PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 3 treatments: CRP alone (n = 10) or CRP plus 8.5% doxycycline hyclate (12) or 2% clindamycin hydrochloride (12) gel applied within the periodontal pockets. Indices of periodontal disease severity were recorded before and 12 weeks after treatment, and outcomes were compared among treatment groups.
RESULTS Except for gingivitis index, no significant differences were identified among the 3 treatment groups in the amount of improvement observed in values for periodontal disease indices following treatment. A minor but clinically unimportant improvement in mean gingivitis index values was identified for dogs treated with CRP plus doxycycline gel, which differed significantly from improvements in the other 2 groups. Teeth that were initially more severely affected (pocket depths, 5.0 to 5.5 mm) had the greatest amount of improvement, whereas teeth with only mildly high initial pocket depths (3.5 to 4.0 mm) had less improvement.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Overall, addition of doxycycline or clindamycin gel application to CRP for the treatment of periodontal disease in dogs yielded no clinically relevant benefit over CRP during the 12-week follow-up period.
To describe techniques and outcomes for dogs and cats undergoing endoscopic nephrolithotomy (ENL) for the removal of complicated nephroliths.
11 dogs and 1 cat (n = 16 renal units) with complicated nephroliths that underwent ENL via a surgically assisted ENL approach (12 renal units) or a percutaneous nephrolithotomy approach (4 renal units) between December 2005 and June 2017.
Data were obtained from the medical records regarding preoperative, operative, and postoperative findings. Follow-up information on complications and outcomes was also collected.
Indications for nephrolith removal included massive calculi displacing parenchyma (n = 7), recurrent urinary tract infections (5), and ureteral outflow obstruction (4). Median nephrolith diameter was 2.5 cm (range, 0.5 to 5.7 cm). Nephrolith composition differed among patients; calcium oxalate was the most common type (n = 7 [including 2 mixed nephroliths containing ≥ 60% calcium oxalate]). Following ENL (median duration, 180 minutes), 15 of 16 renal units were completely nephrolith free. Procedure-related complications included renal puncture-associated hemorrhage requiring a blood transfusion (n = 1), renal capsule tear (1), and ureteral puncture (1); all were managed without adverse consequence. Five of 12 patients remained alive at the final follow-up (median, 557 days after ENL), and none died from the procedure.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
ENL as performed was safe and effective in removing complicated nephroliths in a renal-sparing manner for the patients in this study. This procedure requires technical training and could be considered for the treatment of complicated nephrolithiasis in dogs and possibly cats.