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  • Author or Editor: Kenneth A. Schafer x
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To investigate the use of microwave ablation (MWA) with cooling urethral perfusion and with no perfusion (MWA-UP and MWA-NP, respectively) for prostate gland ablation in canine cadavers.


Cadavers of 18 sexually intact male dogs.


After technique refinement in 2 cadavers, laparotomy with ultrasound-guided MWA-UP (n = 8) or MWA-NP (8) of the prostate gland was performed in 16 cadavers. Normograde cystourethroscopy was performed before and after treatment; recorded images were reviewed in a blinded manner for scoring of urethral mucosal discoloration and loss of integrity. Difficulty with cystoscope insertion was recorded if present. Excised prostate glands were fixed for serial sectioning, gross measurements, and calculation of percentage ablation. Percentages of prostate tissue necrosis from MWA, denuded urethral mucosa, and depth of epithelial surface loss in an adjacent section of the colon were estimated histologically. Variables of interest were statistically analyzed.


Difficulty with cystoscope insertion after treatment was significantly more common and scores for urethral mucosal discoloration and loss of integrity were significantly higher (indicating more severe lesions) for the MWA-NP group than for the MWA-UP group. The histologically assessed percentage of denuded urethral mucosa was also greater for the MWA-NP group. Overall median percentage prostate gland ablation was 73%; this result was not associated with prostate gland volume or chronological order of treatment.


MWA-UP induced subtotal thermal necrosis of prostate glands in canine cadavers while limiting urethral mucosal injury. Further study is required to optimize the technique and evaluate its safety and efficacy in vivo as a future curative-intent treatment for prostatic tumors in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


To evaluate a laser ablation technique for treatment of thoracolumbar intervertebral disk disease in dogs.


Prospective case series.


33 dogs with signs of recurrent back pain associated with intervertebral disk disease after the initial episode had been managed conservatively for a minimum of 2 weeks.


Spinal needles were placed percutaneously through the annulus fibroses to permit delivery of an optical fiber into the nucleus pulposes of thoracolumbar intervertebral disks T10-11 through L3-4. Fluoroscopy was used to guide needle placement. Holmium yttrium aluminum garnet laser energy then was used to ablate the contents of each selected intervertebral disk. Intervals from time of treatment to time of assessment ranged from 3 to 114 weeks.


All dogs recovered without complication. Results of follow-up radiography and histologic evaluation indicated that percutaneous holmium yttrium aluminum garnet laser ablation reduces the volume of nucleus pulposus in treated disks.

Clinical Implications

Used as a clinical treatment and prophylactically, this minimally invasive procedure should prevent further extrusion of partially herniated disks and should reduce the chances of subsequent herniation of disks at other treatment sites. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:1263–1267)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association