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  • Author or Editor: Kenjiro Fukushima x
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Abstract

OBJCTIVE To investigate the effects of dietary lipid overload on bile acid metabolism and gallbladder motility in healthy dogs.

ANIMALS 7 healthy Beagles.

PROCEDURES In a crossover study, dogs were fed a high-fat–high-cholesterol diet (HFCD) or a low-fat diet (LFD) for a period of 2 weeks. After a 4-month washout period, dogs were fed the other diet for 2 weeks. Before and at the end of each feeding period, the concentrations of each of the gallbladder bile acids, cholecystokinin (CCK)-induced gallbladder motility, and bile acid metabolism–related hepatic gene expression were examined in all dogs.

RESULTS The HFCD significantly increased plasma total cholesterol concentrations. The HFCD also increased the concentration of taurochenodeoxycholic acid and decreased the concentration of taurocholic acid in bile and reduced gallbladder contractility, whereas the LFD significantly decreased the concentration of taurodeoxycholic acid in bile. Gene expression analysis revealed significant elevation of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase mRNA expression after feeding the HFCD for 2 weeks, but the expression of other genes was unchanged.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Feeding the HFCD and LFD for 2 weeks induced changes in gallbladder bile acid composition and gallbladder motility in dogs. In particular, feeding the HFCD caused an increase in plasma total cholesterol concentration, an increase of hydrophobic bile acid concentration in bile, and a decrease in gallbladder sensitivity to CCK. These results suggested that similar bile acid compositional changes and gallbladder hypomotility might be evident in dogs with hyperlipidemia.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To examine bile acid composition of gallbladder contents in dogs with gallbladder mucocele and biliary sludge.

ANIMALS 18 dogs with gallbladder mucocele (GBM group), 8 dogs with immobile biliary sludge (i-BS group), 17 dogs with mobile biliary sludge (m-BS group), and 14 healthy dogs (control group).

PROCEDURES Samples of gallbladder contents were obtained by use of percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis or during cholecystectomy or necropsy. Concentrations of 15 bile acids were determined by use of highperformance liquid chromatography, and a bile acid compositional ratio was calculated for each group.

RESULTS Concentrations of most bile acids in the GBM group were significantly lower than those in the control and m-BS groups. Compositional ratio of taurodeoxycholic acid, which is 1 of 3 major bile acids in dogs, was significantly lower in the GBM and i-BS groups, compared with ratios for the control and m-BS groups. The compositional ratio of taurocholic acid was significantly higher and that of taurochenodeoxycholic acid significantly lower in the i-BS group than in the control group.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, concentrations and fractions of bile acids in gallbladder contents were significantly different in dogs with gallbladder mucocele or immobile biliary sludge, compared with results for healthy control dogs. Studies are needed to determine whether changes in bile acid composition are primary or secondary events of gallbladder abnormalities.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To investigate effects of prednisolone administration on gallbladder emptying rate and gallbladder bile composition in dogs.

ANIMALS 6 healthy Beagles.

PROCEDURES Prednisolone was administered (2 mg/kg, SC, once daily for 2 weeks) to each dog and tapered over 2 weeks. Gallbladder emptying rate and bile composition were evaluated before and after administration of prednisolone for 2 weeks as well as 1 week after cessation of prednisolone administration.

RESULTS Gallbladder emptying rate decreased significantly after prednisolone administration (median, 27%; range, 0% to 38%), compared with rate before administration (median, 59%; range, 29% to 68%), but then increased 1 week after cessation of administration (median, 45%; range, 23% to 48%). Gallbladder bile mucin concentration decreased significantly after prednisolone administration (median, 8.8 mg/dL; range, 6.2 to 11.3 mg/dL), compared with concentration before administration (median, 13.1 mg/dL; range, 10.7 to 21.7 mg/dL), but then increased 1 week after cessation of administration (median, 14.3 mg/dL; range, 9.6 to 26.7 mg/dL). Gallbladder taurochenodeoxycholic acid concentration decreased significantly after prednisolone administration (8.1 mmol/L; range, 6.8 to 15.2 mmol/L), compared with concentration before administration (median, 27.2 mmol/L; range, 22.0 to 31.9 mmol/L), but then increased 1 week after cessation of administration (median, 26.4 mmol/L; range, 15.1 to 31.5 mmol/L).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A lower gallbladder emptying rate caused by prednisolone administration may be involved in the pathogenesis of gallbladder disease in dogs. Further studies are required to determine the clinical importance of lower gallbladder bile mucin concentrations caused by glucocorticoid administration in the pathogenesis of gallbladder disease in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research