To evaluate outcomes associated with an experiential leadership program (the Veterinary Leadership Experience [VLE]) among participants 1 year after program completion.
157 veterinary students and 61 veterinary professionals who participated in the 2015 or 2016 VLE.
Participants completed various instruments to assess emotional intelligence, psychological flexibility, resilience, and client-communication skills prior to (pretest) and 1 year after (posttest) attending the VLE; pretest and posttest findings were compared for all but client-communication skills, for which only posttest responses were analyzed. An additional posttest instrument assessed the impact that the VLE had on key knowledge areas (ie, self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, relational competence, communication skills, and conflict management skills) and overall impact.
1 year after completing the VLE, participants reported that the program had a high impact on all key knowledge areas; the impact on social awareness and overall impact was significantly higher for veterinary students than for veterinary professionals. Veterinary professionals reported a greater increase in emotional intelligence after program completion than did veterinary students. For each assessed client-communication skill, the percentage of veterinary professionals who reported increased confidence in that skill after program completion was lower than the corresponding percentage of veterinary students. Resilience and psychological flexibility scores did not increase after program completion.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Assessment of the effectiveness and long-term outcomes of experiential leadership programs is important to understanding whether such programs are having the intended effect. Veterinary students and veterinary professionals who were assessed 1 year after completing the VLE reported improvements in leadership skills foundational to the program.
Objective—To evaluate the veterinary version of the
bladder tumor antigen (V-BTA) test as a screening test
for transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the lower urinary
tract of dogs.
Animals—229 client-owned dogs.
Procedure—Urine samples from dogs were shipped
overnight to a single laboratory to facilitate testing
within 48 hours of collection by use of the V-BTA rapid
latex agglutination urine dipstick test. Groups of dogs
included the following: 1) dogs with TCC of the lower
urinary tract, 2) healthy control dogs, 3) unhealthy
control dogs with non-TCC urinary tract disease, and
4) unhealthy control dogs without urinary tract disease.
Test sensitivity and specificity were calculated
by use of standard methods. Logistic models were
developed to assess the effect of disease status, test
conditions, urine composition, and signalment on the
performance of the V-BTA test.
Results—A total of 229 urine samples were analyzed,
including 48 from dogs with suspected (n = 3) or confirmed
(45) TCC. Test sensitivities were 88, 87, and
85% for all dogs with (suspected and confirmed) TCC,
dogs with confirmed TCC at any site, and dogs with
confirmed TCC of the urinary bladder, respectively.
Test specificities were 84, 41, and 86% for healthy
control dogs, unhealthy control dogs with non-TCC
urinary tract disease, and unhealthy control dogs
without urinary tract disease, respectively. The test
performed slightly better on centrifuged urine samples
than on uncentrifuged urine samples.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Our results
indicate that the V-BTA test is useful in screening for
urinary tract TCC in dogs. (Am J Vet Res