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  • Author or Editor: Kelly E. Hall x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine hospital admission variables for dogs with trauma including values determined with scoring systems (animal trauma triage [ATT], modified Glasgow coma scale [MGCS], and acute patient physiologic and laboratory evaluation [APPLE] scores) and the usefulness of such variables for the prediction of outcome (death vs survival to hospital discharge).

Design—Prospective, multicenter, cohort study.

Animals—315 client-owned dogs.

Procedures—By use of a Web-based data capture system, trained personnel prospectively recorded admission ATT, MGCS, and APPLE scores; clinical and laboratory data; and outcome (death vs survival to discharge) for dogs with trauma at 4 veterinary teaching hospitals during an 8-week period.

Results—Cause of injury was most commonly blunt trauma (173/315 [54.9%]) followed by penetrating trauma (107/315 [34.0%]), or was unknown (35/315 [11.1%]). Of the 315 dogs, 285 (90.5%) survived to hospital discharge. When 16 dogs euthanized because of cost were excluded, dogs with blunt trauma were more likely to survive, compared with dogs with penetrating trauma (OR, 8.5). The ATT (OR, 2.0) and MGCS (OR, 0.47) scores and blood lactate concentration (OR, 1.5) at the time of hospital admission were predictive of outcome. Surgical procedures were performed for 157 (49.8%) dogs; surgery was associated with survival to discharge (OR, 7.1).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated ATT and MGCS scores were useful for prediction of outcome for dogs evaluated because of trauma. Penetrating trauma, low blood lactate concentration, and performance of surgical procedures were predictive of survival to hospital discharge. The methods enabled collection of data for a large number of dogs in a short time.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether shock index (SI) positively correlates with percentage blood loss and negatively correlates with cardiac output (CO) in a canine hemorrhagic shock model and whether SI and metabolic markers may be used as end point targets for resuscitation.

ANIMALS

8 healthy Beagles.

PROCEDURES

Between September and December 2021, dogs underwent general anesthesia for experimental induction of hypotensive shock, with the total volume of blood removed, CO, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, base excess, blood pH, and concentrations of hemoglobin, lactate, ionized calcium recorded, and SI calculated at 4 time points (TPs): after anesthetic induction when the dog had been stable for 10 minutes (TP1), 10 minutes after the mean arterial pressure stabilized to a target of 40 mm Hg following jugular removal of up to 60% blood volume to induce hemorrhagic shock (TP2), 10 minutes after autotransfusion of 50% of the removed blood (TP3), and 10 minutes after autotransfusion of the remaining 50% of the removed blood (TP4).

RESULTS

Mean SI increased between TP1 (1.08 ± 0.35) and TP2 (1.90 ± 0.73) and did not return to the prehemorrhage values for TP3 or TP4. SI correlated positively with percentage blood loss (r = 0.583) and negatively with CO (r = –0.543).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

An increase in SI may support diagnosis of hemorrhagic shock; however, SI cannot be used as the sole end point of resuscitation. Significant differences in blood pH, base excess, and lactate concentration suggested they may be useful markers of hemorrhagic shock and need for blood transfusion.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the effects of hemorrhagic shock and fresh whole blood resuscitation on the microcirculation and endothelial glycocalyx using sidestream dark field (SDF) imaging and plasma biomarkers.

ANIMALS

8 purpose-bred dogs.

METHODS

Pressure-targeted hemorrhagic shock was induced in anesthetized dogs. SDF measurement of perfused boundary region and microcirculatory variables (RBC flow, total vessel density, and relative and absolute capillary blood volume), biomarker measurement (heparan sulfate, hyaluronan, VE-cadherin, and syndecan-1), mean arterial blood pressure, and cardiac output measurement were performed before anesthesia (TP0), after induction (TP1), after hemorrhagic shock (TP2), and after 50% retransfusion (TP3) and 100% retransfusion (TP4).

RESULTS

At TP1, TP2, TP3, and TP4, mean arterial blood pressure was 74.25 ± 7.17 mm Hg, 49.50 ± 13.74 mm Hg, 63.50 ± 13.29 mm Hg, and 71.38 ± 8.77 mm Hg, and cardiac output was 2.57 ± 1.01 L/min, 0.8 ± 0.36 L/min, 1.81 ± 0.57 L/min, and 2.93 ± 1.22 L/min, respectively. Heparan sulfate, hyaluronan, syndecan-1, and VE-cadherin ranges were 24.80 to 77.72 ng/mL, 5.77 to 105.06 ng/mL, below detection to 1,545.69 pg/mL, and 0 to 2.52 ng/mL, respectively. Perfused boundary region, RBC flow, total vessel density, and relative and absolute capillary blood volume ranges were 1.75 to 2.68 µm, 89.6 to 584.5 µm/s, 51.7 to 1,914.3 mm/m2, 0.94 to 1.53 103 μm3, and 1.50 to 94.30 103 μm3, respectively. Heparan sulfate decreased significantly over time (P = .016). No significant differences were found for microcirculatory variables, perfused boundary regions, or other biomarkers.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This was the first study to assess microvascular dysfunction and endothelial shedding in a canine hemorrhagic shock model using SDF microscopy (Glycocheck) and plasma biomarkers. Further studies are needed to determine clinical relevance.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research