Objective—To describe the operative technique for single-port laparoscopic cryptorchidectomy (SPLC) in dogs and cats and evaluate clinical outcome for patients that underwent the procedure.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—25 client-owned dogs (n = 22) and cats (3).
Procedures—Dogs and cats that underwent SPLC with 3 commercially available single-port devices between 2009 and 2014 were retrospectively identified through a multi-institutional medical records review. Surgery was performed via a single-port device placed through a 1.5- to 3.0-cm abdominal incision either at the region of the umbilicus or caudal to the right 13th rib. The cryptorchidectomy was performed with graspers, a bipolar vessel sealing device, and a 30° telescope.
Results—SPLC was performed with a single-incision laparoscopic surgery port (n = 15), a multitrocar wound-retractor access system (8), or a metal resterilizable single-port access device (2). Median age was 365 days (range, 166 to 3,285 days). Median body weight was 18.9 kg (41.6 lb; range, 1.3 to 70 kg [2.9 to 154 lb]). Median surgical time was 38 minutes (range, 15 to 70 minutes). Thirty-two testes were removed (12 left, 6 right, and 7 bilateral). Four patients had 1 additional abdominal surgical procedure performed concurrently during SPLC. No intraoperative or postoperative complications were encountered.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that SPLC can be performed in a wide range of dogs and cats with cryptorchidism and can be combined with other elective laparoscopic surgical procedures. The SPLC technique was associated with a low morbidity rate and provided a potentially less invasive alternative to traditional open and multiport laparoscopic techniques.
Objective—To describe a technique and evaluate the outcome of thoracoscopic thoracic duct ligation (TDL) and subphrenic pericardiectomy (SPP) for treatment of idiopathic chylothorax (IC) in dogs.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—6 client-owned dogs.
Procedures—Medical records of dogs with a diagnosis of IC that were subsequently treated by thoracoscopic TDL and SPP and that had not undergone previous surgical treatment were reviewed. Thoracoscopic TDL was performed via a 3-portal technique with the patient in lateral recumbency. Subphrenic pericardiectomy was subsequently performed via a 3-portal technique with the patient in dorsal recumbency. If visualization during SPP was suboptimal, 1-lung ventilation was used to ensure that pericardial resection was close to the phrenic nerves bilaterally but without risk of iatrogenic nerve injury.
Results—All TDL and SPP procedures were completed successfully in a median surgical time of 177 minutes (range, 135 to 210 minutes). All 6 dogs showed resolution of clinical signs of chylothorax with no recurrence during a median follow-up period of 39 months (range, 19 to 60 months). Final postoperative thoracic radiographic evaluation was performed at a median of 14.5 months (range, 7 to 25 months). Complete resolution of pleural effusion occurred in all but 1 dog. In 1 dog, a small volume of pleural effusion was persistent at a 7-month postoperative radiographic follow-up but was not associated with clinical signs and did not require thoracocentesis at any time during the dog's 25-month follow-up period.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—From this limited series of patients, results suggested that a minimally invasive TDL-SPP combined surgical technique for management of IC in dogs may be associated with a similarly successful outcome as has been reported for open surgical TDL-SPP.
Objective—To evaluate the exposure obtained for minimally invasive abdominal organ biopsy (MIOB) from 3 access incisions in cats.
Design—Prospective experimental study and clinical case series.
Animals—6 purpose-bred research cats and 6 feline clinical patients with indications for abdominal organ biopsy.
Procedures—Three 3-cm incisions into the peritoneal cavity were created at different locations along the linea alba in research cats in randomized order. A wound retraction device was inserted in each incision. Ability to exteriorize various abdominal organs to the extent required to reasonably perform a surgical biopsy was recorded, and results were compared among incision sites. On the basis of results obtained, the access incision that provided exposure of the most frequently biopsied abdominal organs was used to perform MIOB in 6 feline clinical patients with various underlying pathological conditions.
Results—On the basis of experiments with research cats, a 3-cm access incision centered midway between the caudal margin of the xiphoid cartilage and the umbilicus was found to provide access for MIOB for most organs. In 5 of 6 clinical patients, all of the organs of interest were biopsied successfully via this incision location, although access to all hepatic lobes and all parts of the pancreas was inconsistent. In 1 cat, conversion to an open approach was performed because a palpable mass was detected in the area of the duodenocolic ligament.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Optimization of access incision location for MIOB allowed biopsy specimen collection from organs of interest to be performed in a minimally invasive manner in cats.
Objective—To describe the clinicopathologic features of a cohort of dogs with adrenocortical masses that underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy and to compare perioperative morbidity and mortality rates in these dogs with rates for dogs that underwent open adrenalectomy for resection of similarly sized (maximal diameter, ≤ 5 cm) adrenocortical masses.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—48 client-owned dogs that underwent laparoscopic (n = 23) or open (25) adrenalectomy for noninvasive tumors (ie, tumors that did not invade the vena cava or other surrounding organs).
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed. History, clinical signs, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic findings, imaging results, and surgical variables were recorded. A 3- or 4-port approach was used for laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Surgical time, perioperative complications, postoperative and overall hospitalization times, and perioperative deaths were recorded and compared between groups.
Results—The surgical method for 1 dog was converted from a laparoscopic to an open approach. Perioperative death occurred in no dogs in the laparoscopic group and 2 dogs in the open adrenalectomy group. Surgical time was shorter for laparoscopic (median, 90 minutes; range, 40 to 150 minutes) than for open (median, 120 minutes; range, 75 to 195 minutes) adrenalectomy. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was associated with shorter hospitalization time and more rapid discharge from the hospital after surgery, compared with the open procedure.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—With careful patient selection, laparoscopic adrenalectomy was associated with a low complication rate and low conversion rate for resection of adrenocortical masses as well as shorter surgical and hospitalization times, compared with open adrenalectomy.
Objective—To determine the frequency and severity of complications after corrective surgery in dogs with lateral patellar luxation (LPL) and identify risk factors for reluxation.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—36 client-owned dogs with 47 affected stifle joints.
Procedures—Medical records of dogs that underwent surgical correction of LPL at 1 of 2 veterinary teaching hospitals between 2000 and 2011 were reviewed. Data analyzed included signalment, grade of luxation, orthopedic comorbidities, surgical procedures performed, frequency and type of complications, and whether a second surgery was performed.
Results—A total of 36 dogs with 47 affected stifle joints met the inclusion criteria. Complications were recorded for 24 of 47 (51.1%) stifle joints; there were major complications for 18 of 47 (38.3%) stifle joints. All complications were confirmed through examination by a veterinarian. The most frequent complication was reluxation, which was detected in 10 of 47 (21.3%) stifle joints. Dogs that underwent bilateral surgical repair during a single anesthetic episode had odds of reluxation that were 12.5 times the odds of reluxation for dogs that underwent unilateral surgical repair.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Complication rate after corrective surgery for LPL was high, with reluxation being the most common complication in this population of dogs. Performing staged bilateral surgeries may decrease the risk of reluxation.
Objective—To assess risk factors for recurrence of
clinical signs associated with thoracolumbar intervertebral
disk disease (IVDD) in dogs that had decompressive
laminectomy without attempted prophylactic
treatment of other disk spaces.
Procedure—Medical records of dogs that had
decompressive laminectomy without prophylactic
fenestration for a first episode of IVDD and were available
for follow-up were reviewed. Information on 7
clinical and 8 radiographic potential risk factors were
Results—Clinical signs associated with recurrence of
IVDD developed in 44 (19.2%) dogs. Ninety-six percent
of recurrences developed within 3 years after
surgery. Recurrence developed in 25% of Dachshunds
and 15% of dogs of other breeds combined. Number
of opacified disks was a significant risk factor for recurrence.
Risk increased with number of opacified disks
in an almost linear manner; each opacified disk
increased risk by 1.4 times. Dogs with 5 or 6 opacified
disks at the time of first surgery had a recurrence rate
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—When all likely
episodes of recurrence are considered and a long
follow-up period is achieved, true rate of recurrence of
IVDD appears to be higher than in many previous
reports. Dogs with multiple opacified disks at the
time of first surgery should be considered a high-risk
subpopulation. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:
Objective—To describe clinicopathologic features of dogs that underwent lung lobectomy for resection of primary lung tumors via video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) or open thoracotomy (OT) and to compare short-term outcomes for dogs following these procedures.
Design—Retrospective cohort study.
Animals—46 medium- to large-breed dogs with primary lung tumors.
Procedures—Medical records of dogs that underwent a lung lobectomy via VATS (n = 22) or OT (24) for resection of primary lung tumors between 2004 and 2012 were reviewed. Dogs were included if they weighed > 10 kg (22 lb) and resection of a primary lung tumor was confirmed histologically. Tumor volumes were calculated from preoperative CT scans where available. Surgical time, completeness of excision, time in the ICU, indwelling thoracic drain time, postoperative and total hospitalization time, incidence of major complications, and short-term survival rate were evaluated.
Results—VATS was performed with a 3-port (n = 12) or 4-port (10) technique and 1-lung ventilation (22). In 2 of 22 (9%) dogs, VATS was converted to OT. All dogs survived to discharge from the hospital. There were no significant differences between the VATS and OT groups with regard to most variables. Surgery time was significantly longer for VATS than for OT (median, 120 vs 95 minutes, respectively).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In medium- to large-breed dogs, short-term outcomes for dogs that underwent VATS for lung lobectomy were comparable to those of dogs that underwent OT. Further studies are required to evaluate the effects of surgical approach on indices of postoperative pain and long-term outcomes.