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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of triclosan-coated (TC) suture in preventing surgical site infections (SSIs) in dogs and cats undergoing surgical procedures.

ANIMALS

862 animals (794 dogs and 68 cats).

PROCEDURES

Incidences of SSI of surgical wounds closed with TC suture and surgical wounds closed with non-TC suture occurring between the time of surgery and 1 month postoperatively were compared. Animals were randomly assigned to TC or non-TC suture groups. When TC suture was assigned, all suture available as TC material was used rather than non-TC suture. Presence of an SSI was determined by an owner questionnaire or direct examination.

RESULTS

Overall, 50 of 862 (5.8%) animals developed SSIs. Incidence of SSI was 6% (24/428) in the non-TC suture group and 6% (26/434) in the TC suture group. No significant difference was found in the incidence of SSI between groups. No significant difference was detected in the incidence of incisional problems (eg, redness, dehiscence, and seroma formation) between animals in which TC suture was used and those in which non-TC suture was used. On multivariable analysis, other factors were associated with increased SSI rates, including an incision length > 10 cm, surgery performed by the soft tissue surgery department, and anesthesia duration of > 240 minutes.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

No significant difference in incidence of SSI was detected between animals undergoing surgical procedures performed with non-TC versus TC suture.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the likelihood and outcome of esophageal perforation secondary to an esophageal foreign body (EFB) in dogs.

DESIGN Retrospective observational study.

ANIMALS 125 dogs evaluated for EFB at 2 veterinary teaching hospitals from January 2005 through December 2013.

PROCEDURES Data were retrieved from the medical record of each dog regarding variables hypothesized to be associated with esophageal perforation, whether esophageal perforation was present, and survival to hospital discharge. Variables were examined for associations with various outcomes.

RESULTS Bones (55/125 [44%]) and fishhooks (37/125 [30%]) were the most common types of EFBs. Fifteen (12%) dogs had an esophageal perforation (10 with a fishhook EFB and 5 with a bone EFB). No association was identified between dog body weight and esophageal perforation. Esophageal perforation was more likely in dogs with a fishhook EFB (10/37 [27%]) versus other EFBs (5/88 [6%]; OR, 6.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.9 to 9.6). Median interval from fishhook or bone ingestion to initial evaluation was significantly longer for dogs with (12 and 96 hours, respectively) versus without (1 and 24 hours, respectively) perforation. Thirteen of 15 (87%) dogs with esophageal perforation survived to hospital discharge, including all 10 dogs with perforation secondary to fishhook ingestion. Eight survivors with esophageal perforation required no surgical intervention.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Esophageal perforation was uncommon in the evaluated dogs with an EFB, and no surgical intervention was required for a large proportion of them. Fishhooks and delay between EFB ingestion and initial evaluation were risk factors for perforation.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION 5 dogs (median age, 9 years; median body weight, 31 kg [68.2 lb]) with undefined nasal masses were examined after undergoing CT of the head and nasal biopsy via a rostral rhinoscopic or unaided (blind) approach because histologic results for collected biopsy specimens (inflammatory, necrotic, or hemorrhagic disease) suggested the specimens were nonrepresentative of the underlying disease process identified via CT (aggressive or malignant disease).

CLINICAL FINDINGS Clinical signs at the time dogs were evaluated included open-mouth breathing, sneezing, or unilateral epistaxis. Histologic findings pertaining to the original biopsy specimens were suggestive of benign processes such as inflammation. In an attempt to obtain better representative specimens, a frameless CT-guided stereotactic biopsy system (CTSBS) was used to collect additional biopsy specimens from masses within the nasal and sinus passages of the dogs. The second set of biopsy specimens was histologically evaluated.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Histologic evaluation of biopsy specimens collected via the CTSBS revealed results suggestive of malignant neoplasia (specifically, chondrosarcoma, hemangiopericytoma, or undifferentiated sarcoma) for 3 dogs, mild mixed-cell inflammation for 1 dog, and hamartoma for 1 dog. No complications were reported. These findings resulted in a change in treatment recommendations for 3 dogs and confirmed that no additional treatment was required for 1 dog (with hamartoma). For the remaining dog, in which CT findings and clinical history were strongly suggestive of neoplasia, the final diagnosis was rhinitis.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE Biopsy specimens were safely collected from masses within the nasal and sinus passages of dogs by use of a frameless CTSBS, allowing a definitive diagnosis that was unachievable with other biopsy approaches.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To report the intestinal incisional dehiscence rate following enterotomy for foreign body removal in dogs.

ANIMALS

247 client-owned dogs with intestinal foreign bodies treated with enterotomy between November 2001 and September 2017.

PROCEDURES

Medical records were reviewed, and data were collected regarding signalment, history, surgery, clinicopathologic findings, hospitalization, intestinal incisional dehiscence, and survival to hospital discharge. Dogs were grouped according to whether intestinal incisional dehiscence occurred (dehiscence group) or did not occur (nondehiscence group) following enterotomy, and the rate of dehiscence for the total number of enterotomies during the study period was calculated. Univariable analysis was performed to identify variables associated with intestinal incisional dehiscence.

RESULTS

8 of the 247 (3.2%) dogs had preoperative septic peritonitis, and all 8 dogs survived to hospital discharge. Incisional dehiscence occurred following 5 of the 247 (2.0%) enterotomies, and only 2 dogs in the dehiscence group did not survive to hospital discharge. Duration of hospitalization was longer for dogs in the dehiscence group than for dogs in the nondehiscence group.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that enterotomy for intestinal foreign body removal had a lower rate of dehiscence in dogs during the study period, compared with rates previously reported; however, the low rate should not be used as a reason to perform an enterotomy rather than an enterectomy when needed. Surgeons should thoroughly evaluate the bowel and perform an enterotomy only when indicated.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine outcome of open toggle rod stabilization in dogs with luxation of the hip joint.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—62 dogs.

Procedures—Information on signalment, surgical procedure, and postoperative care was obtained from the medical records. A questionnaire was sent to all owners to solicit follow-up information.

Results—The distribution for time between luxation and surgery was bimodal, with 24 (39%) dogs examined ≤ 2 days after injury and 23 (37%) examined > 7 days after injury. Postoperative complications developed in 16 of the 62 (26%) dogs, with complications developing within 1 week after surgery in 10 of the 16. The most common complication was reluxation, which occurred in 7 dogs. Dogs in which surgery time was < 2 hours were significantly less likely to have a reluxation (2/40 [5%]) than were dogs in which surgery time was ≥ 2 hours (5/22 [23%]). When asked to rate current limb function (0 = no lameness and 5 = non–weightbearing lame) a minimum of 6 months after surgery, 23 of 27 (85%) owners indicated a score of 0 or 1.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of the present study suggest that toggle rod stabilization is an effective treatment for hip joint luxation in dogs. However, complications, particularly reluxation, were common.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 4-year-old spayed female Boxer was evaluated for a cutaneous mass located on the dorsum. The mass had been present for 6 weeks and was increasing in size.

Clinical Findings—A mass of approximately 10 cm in diameter was detected on the dorsum cranial to the right ilial wing. Histologic examination of a tissue sample from the mass led to the diagnosis of cutaneous pythiosis. Computed tomography of the abdomen and the mass were performed and revealed a contrast-enhancing soft tissue mass of the dorsum and enlarged intra-abdominal lymph nodes.

Treatment and Outcome—The dog underwent surgical excision of the cutaneous mass, including 5-cm skin margins and deep margins of 2 fascial planes. The mass was completely excised on the basis of results of histologic examination of surgical margins. The dog received itraconazole and terbinafine by mouth for 3 months following surgery. Recheck examination at 20 months postoperatively showed no signs of recurrence of pythiosis at the surgical site.

Clinical Relevance—Aggressive surgical excision in combination with medical treatment resulted in a favorable long-term (> 1 year) outcome in this dog. Thorough workup including diagnostic imaging and lymph node evaluation is recommended. If surgery is to be performed, skin margins of 5 cm and deep margins of 2 fascial planes are recommended.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

A pilot clinical study to evaluate the use of propidium monoazide PCR (PMA-PCR) in quantifying a reduction of bacterial load after antiseptic use on the canine oral mucosa and skin, comparison of quantitative PCR (qPCR) to PMA-PCR, and comparison of patterns seen between PCR methods and bacterial culture.

ANIMALS

Client-owned dogs (n = 10) undergoing general anesthesia and intravenous catheter placement.

PROCEDURES

The oral mucosa and antebrachial skin of each dog underwent swabs for culture, qPCR, and PMA-PCR before and after antiseptic preparation of each site. Reduction in bacterial load between sampling times was evaluated for each quantification method.

RESULTS

All testing methods found a significant decrease in bacterial load from oral mucosa after antiseptic preparation (culture P = .0020, qPCR P = .0039, PMA-PCR P = .0039). PMA-PCR had a significantly greater reduction of bacterial load after preparation than qPCR (P = .0494). Only culture detected a significant reduction after preparation of the skin (culture P = .0039, qPCR P = .3125, PMA-PCR P = .0703).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

PMA-PCR was able to quantify a reduction of bacterial load after antiseptic preparation of the high-bacterial load environment, with a pattern similar to that of culture, and was more specific than qPCR for detecting viable bacterial load. The results of this study support the use of PMA-PCR for antiseptic effectiveness studies performed on a high-bacterial load environment, such as canine oral mucosa.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare short-term complication rates in dogs and cats undergoing cystotomy closure by use of an inverting double-layer pattern (group I) versus cystotomy closure by use of an appositional single-layer pattern (group A).

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—144 client-owned dogs and cats that underwent cystotomy between 1993 and 2010.

Procedures—Information on signalment, reason for cystotomy, method of cystotomy closure, complications that developed during hospitalization, and duration of hospitalization were obtained from the medical record. The effect of closure technique on short-term complication rate and duration of hospitalization was examined.

Results—2 of the 144 animals developed dehiscence and uroabdomen following cystotomy closure: 1 from group A and 1 from group I. Of group A animals, 29 of 79 (37%) developed minor complications such as hematuria and dysuria. Of group I animals, 33 of 65 (50%) developed the same complications. Group A and group I animals did not differ significantly with regard to prevalence of minor or major complications. The mean duration of hospitalization was 4.1 days and did not differ significantly between groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—An appositional single-layer suture pattern for cystotomy closure was a safe and effective procedure with minimal risk of urine leakage and a short-term complication rate of 37%. The appositional single-layer suture pattern for cystotomy closure may be recommended for clinical use because the inverting double-layer suture pattern offered no clear advantage.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate skin perfusion in cats receiving dexmedetomidine compared to a placebo.

ANIMALS

9 healthy adult research cats.

METHODS

A randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled study design was used. Two sites, the dorsal metatarsus (site: limb) and lateral flank (site: flank), were evaluated with laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) at baseline and following administration of dexmedetomidine (1, 3, or 5 mcg/kg, IV) or a placebo (0.9% saline, IV). Mean speckle contrast (MSC), a surrogate for perfusion, was obtained from LSCI and compared between treatments. Heart rate, sedation score, and body temperature were recorded. Skin perfusion to the flank and limb, reported as MSC, was assessed via LSCI at baseline and at 5, 10, and 15 minutes posttreatment.

RESULTS

There was a significant decrease in heart rate (P < .001) in cats receiving 1, 3, and 5 mcg/kg dexmedetomidine compared to placebo. There was a significant increase in median sedation score at all time points postsedation compared to baseline (P < .018). Changes in MSC for the metatarsus were not significantly different between treatments at any time point (P = .12). For the flank, MSC was significantly higher for cats treated with dexmedetomidine compared to baseline (P ≤ .01). Skin perfusion to the flank decreased as early as 5 minutes posttreatment with dexmedetomidine and persisted for at least 15 minutes, regardless of dexmedetomidine dose.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Dexmedetomidine decreased skin perfusion in cats, even at low doses. Veterinarians may elect for an alternative sedative medication when decreased skin perfusion is a concern.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research