Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 6 of 6 items for

  • Author or Editor: Keith West x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of maternally derived antibodies on induction of protective immune responses against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type II in young calves vaccinated with a modified-live bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type I vaccine.

Design—Blinded controlled challenge study.

Animals—24 neonatal Holstein and Holstein-cross calves that were deprived of maternal colostrum and fed pooled colostrum that contained a high concentration of (n = 6) or no (18) antibodies to BVDV.

Procedure—At 10 to 14 days of age, 6 seropositive and 6 seronegative calves were given a combination vaccine containing modified-live BVDV type I. All calves were kept in isolation for 4.5 months. Six calves of the remaining 12 untreated calves were vaccinated with the same combination vaccine at approximately 4 months of age. Three weeks later, all calves were challenged intranasally with a virulent BVDV type II.

Results—Seronegative unvaccinated calves and seropositive calves that were vaccinated at 2 weeks of age developed severe disease, and 4 calves in each of these groups required euthanasia. Seronegative calves that were vaccinated at 2 weeks or 4 months of age developed only mild or no clinical signs of disease.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate that a single dose of a modified-live BVDV type-I vaccine given at 10 to 14 days of age can protect susceptible young calves from virulent BVDV type II infection for at least 4 months, but high concentrations of BVDV-specific maternally derived antibodies can block the induction of the response. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:351–356)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether an inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) vaccine would protect calves from infection with virulent BRSV.

Design—Randomized controlled trial.

Animals—27 nine-week-old calves seronegative for BRSV exposure.

Procedure—Group-1 calves (n = 9) were not vaccinated. Group-2 calves (n = 9) were vaccinated on days 0 and 21 with an inactivated BRSV vaccine containing a minimum immunizing dose of antigen. Group-3 calves (n = 9) were vaccinated on days 0 and 21 with an inactivated BRSV vaccine containing an amount of antigen similar to that in a commercial vaccine. All calves were challenged with virulent BRSV on day 42. Clinical signs and immune responses were monitored for 8 days after challenge. Calves were euthanatized on day 50, and lungs were examined for lesions.

Results—Vaccination elicited increases in BRSV-specific IgG and virus neutralizing antibody titers and in production of interferon-γ. Virus neutralizing antibody titers were consistently less than IgG titers. Challenge with BRSV resulted in severe respiratory tract disease and extensive pulmonary lesions in control calves, whereas vaccinated calves had less severe signs of clinical disease and less extensive pulmonary lesions. The percentage of vaccinated calves that shed virus in nasal secretions was significantly lower than the percentage of control calves that did, and peak viral titer was lower for vaccinated than for control calves.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that the inactivated BRSV vaccine provided clinical protection from experimental infection with virulent virus and decreased the severity of pulmonary lesions. Efficacy was similar to that reported for modified-live BRSV vaccines. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1973–1980)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether single-fraction and combination modified-live bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) vaccines commercially licensed for parenteral administration could stimulate protective immunity in calves after intranasal administration.

Design—Randomized controlled trial.

Animals—39 calves.

Procedures—Calves were separated from dams at birth, fed colostrum with a minimal concentration of antibodies against BRSV, and maintained in isolation. In 2 preliminary experiments, 9-week-old calves received 1 (n = 3) or 2 (3) doses of a single-component, modified-live BRSV vaccine or no vaccine (8 control calves in each experiment), and were challenged with BRSV 21 days after vaccination. In a third experiment, 2-week-old calves received combination modifiedlive virus (MLV) vaccines with or without BRSV and calves were challenged with BRSV 8 days later. Calves were euthanized, and lung lesions were measured. Immune responses, including serum and nasal antibody and nasal interferon-α concentrations, were assessed.

Results—BRSV challenge induced signs of severe clinical respiratory tract disease, including death and pulmonary lesions in unvaccinated calves and in calves that received a combination viral vaccine without BRSV. Pulmonary lesions were significantly less severe in BRSV-challenged calves that received single or combination BRSV vaccines. The proportion of calves that shed virus and the peak virus titer was decreased, compared with control calves. Protection was associated with mucosal IgA antibody responses after challenge.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Single and combination BRSV vaccines administered intranasally provided clinical protection and sparing of pulmonary tissue similar to that detected in response to parenteral delivery of combination MLV and inactivated BRSV vaccines previously assessed in the same challenge model.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize clinical signs and lesions and identify the etiologic agent associated with epizootic catarrhal enteritis in domestic ferrets.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—119 ferrets with epizootic diarrhea of presumed viral cause and 5 control ferrets.

Procedure—Clinical records and biopsy or necropsy specimens of ferrets with presumed epizootic catarrhal enteritis were reviewed. Immunohistochemical staining for coronavirus antigen was performed on paraffin-embedded tissues from approximately 10% of affected ferrets to identify viral antigen and determine its distribution. Transmission electron microscopy was performed on fecal samples and sections of jejunum. Virus isolation studies as well as immunofluorescent tests for other similar viruses were performed.

Results—Characteristic microscopic lesions consistent with intestinal coronavirus infection (vacuolar degeneration and necrosis of villus enterocytes; villus atrophy, fusion, and blunting; and lymphocytic enteritis) were consistently detected in affected ferrets. Coronavirus particles were identified in feces and jejunal enterocytes by use of transmission electron microscopy. Immunohistochemical staining of jejunal sections revealed coronavirus antigens. Antigen staining was not detected in healthy ferrets or ferrets with other gastrointestinal tract diseases. Virus isolation was unsuccessful, and other similar viruses were not detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results strongly implicate a coronavirus as the causative agent of epizootic catarrhal enteritis in ferrets. Diagnosis may be made on the basis of a combination of historical, clinical, and microscopic findings. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:526–530)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine comparative efficacy of vaccines administered IM and intranasally, used alone or sequentially, to protect puppies from infection with Bordetella bronchiseptica and determine whether systemic or mucosal antibody response correlated with protection.

Design—Randomized controlled trial.

Animals—50 specific-pathogen-free Beagle puppies.

Procedure—In 2 replicates of 25 dogs each, 14-weekold puppies that were vaccinated against canine distemper virus and parvovirus were vaccinated against B bronchiseptica via intranasal, IM, intranasal-IM, or IMintranasal administration or were unvaccinated controls. Puppies were challenge exposed via aerosol administration of B bronchiseptica 2 weeks after final vaccination. Clinical variables and systemic and mucosal antibody responses were monitored for 10 days after challenge exposure. Puppies in replicate 1 were necropsied for histologic and immunohistochemical studies.

Results—Control puppies that were seronegative before challenge exposure developed paroxysmal coughing, signs of depression, anorexia, and fever. Vaccinated puppies (either vaccine) that were seronegative before challenge exposure had fewer clinical signs. Puppies that received both vaccines had the least severe clinical signs and fewest lesions in the respiratory tract. Vaccinated dogs had significantly higher concentrations of B bronchiseptica-reactive antibodies in serum saliva before and after challenge. Antibody concentrations were negatively correlated with bacterial growth in nasal cavity and pharyngeal samples after challenge exposure.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Parenterally and intranasally administered vaccines containing B bronchiseptica may provide substantial protection from clinical signs of respiratory tract disease associated with infection by this bacterium. Administration of both types of vaccines in sequence afforded the greatest degree of protection against disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:367–375)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare isolates of Rhodococcus equi on the basis of geographic source and virulence status by use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).

Sample Population—290 isolates of R equi(218 virulent isolates from foals and 72 avirulent isolates from feces, soil, and respiratory tract samples) obtained between 1985 and 2000 from horses and horse farms from 4 countries.

Procedure—DNA from isolates was digested with the restriction enzyme AseI and tested by use of PFGE. Products were analyzed for similarities in banding patterns by use of dendrograms. A similarity matrix was constructed for isolates, and the matrix was tested for nonrandom distributions of similarity values with respect to groupings of interest.

Results—There was little grouping of isolates on the basis of country, virulence status, or region within Texas. Isolates of R equi were generally < 80% similar, as determined by use of PFGE. Isolates from the same farm generally were rarely of the same strain.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Considerable chromosomal variability exists among isolates of R equi obtained from the same farm, sites within Texas, or among countries from various continents. Only rarely will it be possible to link infections to a given site or region on the basis of analysis of isolates by use of PFGE of chromosomal DNA. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:153–161)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research