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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether postexposure rabies prophylaxis (PEP) in domestic animals, as mandated by the state of Texas, has continued to be effective and to evaluate PEP and preexposure rabies vaccination failures from 1995 through 1999.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—830 unvaccinated domestic animals (621 dogs, 78 horses, 71 cats, and 60 cattle) that received PEP and 4 animals (3 dogs and 1 horse) that had preexposure rabies vaccination failure.

Procedure—Zoonotic incident case reports from 1995 through 1999 were reviewed for information regarding unvaccinated domestic animals that received PEP according to state protocol after exposure to a rabid animal; reports were also reviewed for information regarding preexposure rabies vaccination failures. The PEP recommendations were to immediately vaccinate the animal against rabies, isolate the animal for 90 days, and administer booster vaccinations during the third and eighth weeks of the isolation period. Rabies vaccines used in the PEP protocol were administered via the route prescribed by the USDA.

Results—From 1995 through 1999, 830 animals received PEP; 4 failures were recorded. Additionally, 4 preexposure rabies vaccination failures were recorded.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study indicate that an effective PEP protocol for unvaccinated domestic animals exposed to rabies includes immediate vaccination against rabies, a strict isolation period of 90 days, and administration of booster vaccinations during the third and eighth weeks of the isolation period. This PEP schedule has proven to be effective for control of rabies in domestic animals. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218: 522–525)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objectives

To determine the effectiveness of postexposure rabies prophylaxis (PEX) recommendations, as mandated by the state of Texas, and to investigate PEX and preexposure rabies vaccination failures.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

1,345 unvaccinated domestic animals that had received PEX and 6 animals that had had preexposure rabies vaccination failure.

Procedure

Zoonotic incident case report forms from 1979 through 1994 were reviewed for information about unvaccinated domestic animals that received PEX after exposure to a rabid animal, according to state protocol; the reports were also reviewed for information about preexposure rabies vaccination failures. From 1979 through 1987, the PEX protocol was to immediately vaccinate the animal against rabies, isolate it for 6 months, and administer a booster vaccination 1 month prior to release from isolation. From 1988 through 1994, the protocol was to immediately vaccinate the animal against rabies, isolate it for 90 days, and give booster vaccinations during the third and eighth weeks of the isolation period.

Results

From 1979 through 1987, 713 animals received PEX; 2 failures were recorded. From 1988 through 1994, 632 animals received PEX; 3 failures were recorded. From 1991 through 1994, 6 preexposure rabies vaccination failures were recorded.

Clinical Implications

An effective PEX schedule for domestic animals includes immediate rabies vaccination, with a minimum of 1 booster vaccination, and 90 day's strict isolation. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:1827-1830)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Prior to 1988, rabies was reported only sporadically in coyotes. However, in the final 4 months of 1988, Starr County, Tex, which is situated on the US-Mexico border, experienced an epizootic of canine rabies, consisting of 6 laboratory-confirmed cases of rabies in coyotes and of 2 cases in domestic dogs. The first 3 cases were detected in coyotes, and the first case in a domestic dog was observed 84 days after the index case. Adjacent Hidalgo County reported 9 cases of rabies in dogs during the same time that rabid dogs were being reported in Starr County. In 1989, the epizootic primarily involved dogs: 15 dogs in Starr County and 19 dogs in Hidalgo County. Five rabid coyotes were reported in Starr County in 1989, and 1 rabid coyote was reported from Hidalgo County. In 1990, rabies was reported in 3 coyotes and in 31 dogs in Starr County; cases were not detected in Hidalgo County. During 1991, the epizootic expanded approximately 160 km northward, resulting in laboratory-confirmed cases in 42 coyotes and 25 dogs in 10 counties. In 1992, Webb and Willacy Counties became involved; 70 rabid coyotes and 41 rabid dogs were reported in 1992 from the 12-county area. During the first 6 months of 1993, there were 31 rabid coyotes and 38 rabid dogs reported from the same 12 south Texas counties. In May 1993, a raccoon infected with the canine rabies ecotype was reported from Cameron County. Antigenic and genetic analysis revealed the virus ecotype affecting dogs and coyotes to be that associated with urban canine rabies along the US-Mexico border.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine effectiveness of large-scale distribution of an oral rabies vaccine contained in a palatable bait for halting expansion of a canine rabies epizootic in coyotes (Canis latrans).

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

98 coyotes during prevaccination surveillance and 449 coyotes and 60 other wild animals during postvaccination surveillance.

Procedure

A vaccinia recombinant oral rabies vaccine was inserted into an edible bait for coyotes that also contained tetracycline as a biomarker. Vaccine units were then distributed via aircraft, using automated distribution equipment and flight plans developed by incorporating global positioning system equipment. The target area was along the northern edge of an area that had an epizootic of canine rabies. This area was identified through previously conducted epidemiologic surveillance of rabies cases. During postvaccination surveillance, dental specimens were examined for biomarker evidence of bait acceptance, and serum samples were analyzed for rabies neutralizing antibodies.

Results

Samples from 449 coyotes were obtained during postvaccination surveillance. Seroconversion was detected in 39 of 96 (40.6%) coyotes that had evidence of tetracycline biomarker. Additionally, the number of rabies cases in the target area decreased, and expansion of the epizootic area ceased.

Clinical Implications

Mass distribution of an oral rabies vaccine in a palatable bait is an effective means to halt expansion of a rabies epizootic involving coyotes. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998; 212:498-502)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess the heritability of pancreatic acinar atrophy (PAA) in German Shepherd Dogs (GSDs) in the United States.

Animals—135 GSDs belonging to 2 multigenerational pedigrees.

Procedure—Two multigenerational pedigrees of GSDs with family members with PAA were identified. The clinical history of each GSD enrolled in the study was recorded, and serum samples for canine trypsinlike immunoreactivity (cTLI) analysis were collected from 102 dogs. Dogs with a serum cTLI concentration ≤ 2.0 µg/L were considered to have exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) and were assumed to have PAA.

Results—Pedigree I consisted of 59 dogs and pedigree II of 76 dogs. Serum cTLI concentrations were measured in 48 dogs from pedigree I and 54 dogs from pedigree II. A total of 19 dogs (14.1%) were determined to have EPI, 9 in pedigree I (15.3%) and 10 in pedigree II (13.6%). Of the 19 dogs with EPI, 8 were male and 11 were female.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Evaluation of data by complex segregation analysis is strongly suggestive of an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance for EPI in GSDs in the United States. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1429–1434)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research