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Abstract

Objective—To determine localization of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and cathepsin K in ruptured and healthy cranial cruciate ligaments (CCL) in dogs.

Animals—30 dogs with ruptured CCL, 8 aged dogs without ruptured CCL, and 9 young dogs without ruptured CCL.

Procedure—The CCL was examined histologically and cells containing TRAP and cathepsin K were identified histochemically and immunohistochemically, respectively.

Results—Cathepsin K and TRAP were detected within the same cells, principally within the epiligamentous region and to a lesser extent in the core region of ruptured CCL. Numbers of cells containing TRAP and cathepsin K were significantly greater in ruptured CCL, compared with CCL from young or aged dogs, and numbers of such cells were greater in CCL from aged dogs, compared with those of young dogs. In aged dogs, small numbers of cells containing TRAP and cathepsin K were seen in intact CCL associated with ligament fascicles in which there was chondroid transformation of ligament fibroblasts and disruption of the extracellular matrix.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Ruptured CCL contain greater numbers of cells with the proteinases TRAP and cathepsin K than CCL from healthy, young, or aged dogs. Results suggest that cell-signaling pathways that regulate expression of these proteinases may form part of the mechanism that leads to upregulation of collagenolytic ligament remodeling and progressive structural failure of the CCL over time. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1279–1284).

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To describe the cancellous bone architecture of the head and neck of the femur in healthy dogs by use of automated histomorphometry techniques in conjunction with histologic grading of articular cartilage.

Animals—30 mature male dogs with healthy coxofemoral joints

Procedure—Dogs were 1.5 to 4 years old and weighed 27 to 37 kg. Computer images of fine-detail radiographs of 100-µm-thick coronal and transverse plane sections of the head and neck of the femur (14 dogs) were analyzed by use of histomorphometry software. Statistical comparisons among histomorphometric indices of 4 regions were performed. Histologic preparations of coronal and transverse plane sections of femoral head articular cartilage (16 dogs) were graded. Median grades for lateral, medial, cranial, and caudal halves of the femoral head articular cartilage were determined.

Results—Bone volume/total volume, trabecular thickness and number, and bone surface/total volume were significantly higher in the femoral head than in the femoral neck. Anisotropy (trabecular alignment) and trabecular separation were significantly higher in the femoral neck than in the femoral head. Anisotropy was significantly higher in the caudal half of the femoral neck than in the cranial half. Cartilage had histologic grades indicating health without significant differences among lateral, medial, cranial, and caudal halves of femoral head cartilage.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A predictable cancellous architecture in the head and neck of the femur is associated with healthy cartilage. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:268–274)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To describe cancellous architecture of the proximal portion of the femur in dogs with osteoarthritis.

Animals—30 dogs with coxofemoral osteoarthritis.

Procedure—All dogs had femoral head and neck excision or total hip arthroplasty. Histomorphometry software was used to analyze computer images of 100- μm-thick coronal and transverse plane sections of the head and neck of the femur. Histologic preparations of coronal and transverse sections of articular cartilage were graded.

Results—Bone volume/total volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, and bone surface/total volume were significantly higher in the femoral head than femoral neck. Trabecular alignment (anisotropy) and separation were significantly higher in the femoral neck than femoral head. Anisotropy was significantly increased in the medial portion of the femoral head in the coronal plane and in the cranial portion of the femoral neck in the transverse plane, compared with healthy dogs. The medial half of femoral head cartilage that overlies the proximomedial cancellous bone region had significantly more degraded cartilage than the lateral half. Histologic grades for cranial and caudal halves of femoral head articular cartilage were similar.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Most findings were similar to those in healthy dogs. Greater trabecular alignment in the proximomedial region of the femoral head and craniolateral region of the femoral neck in dogs with osteoarthritis suggests an altered transfer of load through the coxofemoral joint. Greater cartilage degradation on the medial half of the femoral head supports an association between increased trabecular alignment and cartilage degradation. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1267–1272)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To characterize the MRI and histologic features of the supraspinatus tendon in nonlame dogs.

ANIMALS 7 cadavers (14 shoulder joints) of nonlame 2-year-old sexually intact male Beagles.

PROCEDURES Multiple MRI fluid-sensitive pulse sequences were obtained for both shoulder joints of each cadaver, and the thickness, volume, and signal intensity of each supraspinatus tendon were assessed. After MRI scanning was complete, the shoulder joints were processed for histologic examination. Tissue specimens were stained with various stains to determine tendon morphology and composition. Histologic and MRI findings were correlated and described.

RESULTS All supraspinatus tendons had a trilaminar appearance on sagittal and transverse MRI images, which was characterized by a thick, hyperintense center layer (central substance) sandwiched between thin hypointense superficial and deep margins. The mean ± SD central substance-to-superficial margin and central substance-to-deep margin thickness ratios were 8.4 ± 1.2 and 9.0 ± 0.9, respectively; supraspinatus tendon-to-triceps brachii muscle signal intensity ratio was 1.3 ± 0.2; and tendon volume was 445 ± 20 mm3. The superficial and deep margins histologically resembled other tendons with highly ordered collagen fibers. The central substance was comprised of water-rich glycosaminoglycans interspersed among haphazardly arranged collagen bundles.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated histologically normal canine supraspinatus tendons have a trilaminar appearance on MRI images. In dogs, a diagnosis of supraspinatus tendinosis should not be based solely on the tendon having a hyperintense signal on MRI images; other MRI evidence of shoulder joint disease and diagnostic findings are necessary to support such a diagnosis.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine fibroblast viability, assess development of apoptosis, and evaluate tissue hypoxia via histochemical, in-situ hybridization, or immunohistochemical staining in ruptured and intact cranial cruciate ligaments (CCLs) of dogs.

Animals—32 dogs with ruptured CCLs, and 8 aged and 19 young dogs with intact CCLs.

Procedure—Markers of cell viability (lactate dehydrogenase [LDH]), apoptosis (terminal deoxynucleatidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-nick end labeling [TUNEL] method), and hypoxia (hypoxiainducible factor-1α [HIF-1α] monoclonal antibody) were applied to CCL specimens; positive cells were assessed objectively (LDH) and subjectively (TUNEL and HIF-1α) in the main axial tissue component (core) and synovial intima and subintima (epiligamentous tissue).

Results—Viable fibroblasts were seen in all intact and ruptured CCLs. More nonviable cells were found in the core regions of ruptured CCLs and intact CCLs of young dogs than in the epiligamentous regions. Number of nonviable cells in the core region of ruptured CCLs was greater than that in intact CCLs of young and aged dogs, whereas the number in the epiligamentous region was similar in all specimens. The TUNEL and HIF-1αstaining was only found in the epiligamentous region of ruptured CCLs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ruptured CCLs contained a high number of nonviable cells but not a great number of apoptotic cells. Repair processes in the epiligamentous region of the CCL include a metabolic response to hypoxia, suggesting that necrosis of ligament fibroblasts and transformation of surviving cells to a spheroid phenotype may be a response to hypoxia cause by microinjury or inadequate blood flow. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1010–1016)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To identify risk factors associated with surgical site infection (SSI) in dogs following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO).

DESIGN Retrospective cohort study.

ANIMALS 320 dogs that underwent unilateral or bilateral TPLO (n = 405 procedures) between 2007 and 2015 and were reexamined by a veterinarian at least once ≥ 8 weeks after the procedure.

PROCEDURES Data were extracted from medical records regarding signalment, TPLO procedure details, medical history of dermatitis, and SSI status. Logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with SSI development.

RESULTS An SSI developed following 34 (8.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.1% to 11.5%) procedures. Prophylactic antimicrobial administration was provided following 36.8% (n = 149) of procedures. For 71 (17.5%) procedures, the dog had dermatitis at the time of surgery; 12 of these procedures involved dermatitis at the surgical site. The incidence of SSI following the 12 procedures for dogs with dermatitis at the surgical site was 16.7% (2/12 [95% CI, 3.3% to 54.3%]) and was 10.2% (6/59 [95% CI, 4.5% to 21.3%]) for dogs with dermatitis elsewhere; however, these differences in incidence were not significant. On multivariable analysis, German Shepherd Dogs (vs other breeds), meniscectomy (vs no meniscectomy), and attending surgeon having performed ≤ 20 (vs > 20) procedures during the study period were associated with increased odds of SSI.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE SSI following TPLO was associated with the German Shepherd breed, meniscectomy, and surgeon. Prospective studies are needed to investigate the mechanisms underlying these associations.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine prevalence of the contralateral radiographic infrapatellar fat pad sign and contralateral radiographic degenerative sign (degenerative changes) and evaluate both signs as risk factors for subsequent contralateral cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) rupture in dogs with unilateral CrCL rupture.

Design—Retrospective cohort study.

Animals—96 dogs with unilateral CrCL rupture and 22 dogs with bilateral CrCL rupture.

Procedures—Dogs with unilateral CrCL rupture were classified as having normal (n = 84) or abnormal (12) contralateral stifle joints on the basis of joint palpation. Associations between potential predictive variables and rates of subsequent contralateral CrCL rupture were evaluated.

Results—Of the 84 dogs with unilateral CrCL rupture in which the contralateral stifle joint was palpably normal, 29 (34.5%) had a contralateral fat pad sign and 31 (36.9%) had a degenerative sign. All dogs with unilateral CrCL rupture in which the contralateral stifle joint was palpably abnormal had a contralateral fat pad sign and degenerative sign. The contralateral fat pad sign was the most important risk factor for subsequent rupture of the contralateral CrCL. For dogs with unilateral CrCL rupture and palpably normal contralateral stifle joint with and without a contralateral fat pad sign, median time to subsequent rupture was 421 and 1,688 days, respectively, and the 3-year probability of subsequent rupture was 85.3% and 24.9%, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Bilateral stifle joint radiography should be performed for all dogs with CrCL rupture. Bilateral stifle joint arthroscopy should be considered for dogs with a contralateral fat pad sign.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association