OBJECTIVE To measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) by means of perfusion CT in clinically normal Holstein calves.
ANIMALS 9 Holstein calves.
PROCEDURES Each of the 9 calves (mean age, 20.2 days) was anesthetized and received an injection of iodinated contrast medium into the right jugular vein at a rate of 4.0 mL/s. Dynamic CT scanning of the head at a level that included the mandibular condyle was initiated at the time of the contrast medium injection and continued for 100 seconds. A deconvolution method was used as an analytic algorithm.
RESULTS Among the 9 calves, the mean ± SD CBF in the cerebral cortex, white matter, and thalamus was 44.3 ± 10.3 mL/100 g/min, 36.1 ± 7.5 mL/100 g/min, and 40.3 ± 7.5 mL/100 g/min, respectively. The CBF in white matter was significantly lower than that in the cerebral cortex or thalamus. The mean CBV in the cerebral cortex, white matter, and thalamus was 6.8 ± 1.0 mL/100 g, 5.2 ± 1.0 mL/100 g, and 5.7 ± 0.7 mL/100 g, respectively. The CBV in the cerebral cortex was significantly higher than that in the white matter or thalamus.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Measurement of CBF and CBV in clinically normal calves by means of perfusion CT was feasible. The data obtained may be useful as baseline values for use in future research or for comparison with findings from calves with CNS diseases. Investigations to determine the lower limit of blood flow at which brain function can still be restored are warranted.
OBJECTIVE To investigate effects of changes in analytic variables and contrast medium osmolality on glomerular filtration rate estimated by CT (CT-GFR) in dogs.
ANIMALS 4 healthy anesthetized Beagles.
PROCEDURES GFR was estimated by inulin clearance, and dogs underwent CT-GFR with iodinated contrast medium (iohexol or iodixanol) in a crossover-design study. Dynamic renal CT scanning was performed. Patlak plot analysis was used to calculate GFR with the renal cortex or whole kidney selected as the region of interest. The renal cortex was analyzed just prior to time of the second cortical attenuation peak. The whole kidney was analyzed 60, 80, 100, and 120 seconds after the appearance of contrast medium. Automated GFR calculations were performed with preinstalled perfusion software including 2 noise reduction levels (medium and strong). The CT-GFRs were compared with GFR estimated by inulin clearance.
RESULTS There was no significant difference in CT-GFR with iohexol versus iodixanol in any analyses. The CT-GFR at the renal cortex, CT-GFR for the whole kidney 60 seconds after appearance of contrast medium, and CT-GFR calculated by perfusion software with medium noise reduction did not differ significantly from GFR estimated by inulin clearance. The CT-GFR was underestimated at ≥ 80 seconds after contrast medium appearance (whole kidney) and when strong noise reduction was used with perfusion CT software.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Selection of the renal cortex as region of interest or use of the 60-second time point for whole-kidney evaluation yielded the best CT-GFR results. The perfusion software used produced good results with appropriate noise reduction.
IMPACT FOR HUMAN MEDICINE The finding that excessive noise reduction caused underestimation of CT-GFR suggests that this factor should also be considered in CT-GFR examination of human patients.