To evaluate the clinical feasibility and usefulness of measuring shunt fraction (SF) and hepatic perfusion with CT in dogs with a single extrahepatic portosystemic shunt (EPSS).
36 client-owned dogs with EPSS.
Dogs with EPSS referred for treatment between February 2016 and May 2017 were eligible for the clinical trial. Shunt type, SF, and hepatic perfusion were determined in each dog with a 320-row multidetector CT scanner, and surgical treatment was performed by a single veterinary surgeon. Differences in results between dogs grouped according to age (< 3 years vs ≥ 3 years), shunt type, and subgroups (eg, clinical signs and surgical procedure) were analyzed, and correlations between the SF and hepatic perfusion variables were evaluated.
The median SF was higher in dogs < 3 years old (74.6%; n = 18) versus dogs ≥ 3 years old (35.1%; 18). Correlations were identified between SF and hepatic perfusion variables, and differences in results for SF and hepatic perfusion variables were detected between dogs grouped according to shunt type.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results indicated that CT-derived measurements of SF and hepatic perfusion variables in dogs with EPSS were feasible and could be useful (eg, estimating EPSS condition status and planning treatment) in clinical settings. In addition, our findings suggested that perfusion CT could be useful for distinguishing hemodynamic characteristics among different types of portosystemic shunts in dogs.
Objective—To investigate the in vitro differentiation of canine bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) into functional, mature neurons.
Sample—Bone marrow from 6 adult dogs.
Procedures—BMSCs were isolated from bone marrow and chemically induced to develop into neurons. The morphology of the BMSCs during neuronal induction was monitored, and immunocytochemical analyses for neuron markers were performed after the induction. Real-time PCR methods were used to evaluate the mRNA expression levels of markers for neural stem or progenitor cells, neurons, and ion channels, and western blotting was used to assess the expression of neuronal proteins before and after neuronal induction. The electrophysiological properties of the neuron-like cells induced from canine BMSCs were evaluated with fluorescent dye to monitor Ca2+ influx.
Results—Canine BMSCs developed a neuron-like morphology after neuronal induction. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that these neuron-like cells were positive for neuron markers. After induction, the cells’ mRNA expression levels of almost all neuron and ion channel markers increased, and the protein expression levels of nestin and neurofilament-L increased significantly. However, the neuron-like cells derived from canine BMSCs did not have the Ca2+ influx characteristic of spiking neurons.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although canine BMSCs had neuron-like morphological and biochemical properties after induction, they did not develop the electrophysiological characteristics of neurons. Thus, these results have suggested that canine BMSCs could have the capacity to differentiate into a neuronal lineage, but the differentiation protocol used may have been insufficient to induce development into functional neurons.