Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 6 of 6 items for

  • Author or Editor: Kay P. Riddell x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Summary

Pad grafts would be indicated in instances of severe paw trauma when there has been loss of the major weight-bearing pads (ie, metatarsal and metacarpal pads) as well as loss of the digital pads. A practical technique for replacing pad tissue on the remaining paw tissue could avert limb amputation for lack of weight-bearing tissue in the area.

Small segmental digital pad grafts were placed in granulation tissue beds in dogs. Although the grafts were from thick pad skin, they healed well. However, intervening wound areas did not become covered with the heavier keratinized epithelium of the pads. The thinner, more rapidly growing, less keratinized epithelium from the wound edges covered most of the wound.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Three configurations of cast padding and no cast padding were evaluated for their effects on skin in dogs. Padding was placed over bony prominences, between bony prominences, and over both areas for full-length padding under short-limb walking casts applied to 1 pelvic limb of Greyhounds. Evaluations were performed by pressure measurement over the calcaneal tuberosity, measurement of skin thromboxane B2 (TxB2) concentrations in skin over bony prominences, and measurement of plasma TXB2 concentrations.

Pressure studies were performed to evaluate cutaneous pressures related to no cast padding and various configurations of cast padding. Concentrations of TxB2 in the skin were determined to evaluate the skin inflammatory effects of no padding and the padding configurations, and TXB2 concentrations in the plasma were analyzed to ascertain whether they could be used to predict impending dermal pressure lesions.

Flexion of casted limbs revealed the greatest pressure over the calcaneal tuberosity with full-length cast padding. This was followed in decreasing order by no cast padding, padding over the prominences, and padding between the prominences.

Compared with all other bony prominences and padding configurations, TXB2 skin concentrations were significantly higher over the calcaneal tuberosity when no padding was used and over the lateral base of metatarsal V when padding was placed between the prominences. Over the calcaneal tuberosity, this was attributed to the sharpness of the prominence and its potential for movement. This high TxB2 concentration corresponded to the high pressure found in the pressure studies. Over the lateral base of metatarsal V, the increase in TxB2 concentration was related to the mass of the prominence and the tendency for localized padding to settle around the area.

Although the fully padded cast produced the highest pressure over the calcaneal tuberosity in the pressure measurement studies, this form of padding had the lowest TXB2 skin concentrations over this prominence in the 7- day TXB2 measurement studies. This was attributed to compacting of cast padding over time with resultant decrease in pressure over the bony prominence. There were no significant differences in plasma TxB2 concentrations before and after casting.

On the basis of cutaneous pressure measurements and or dermal or plasma TxB2 measurements after short-limb casts had been in place for 7 days, we concluded that absence of cast padding can cause dermal pressure injury over sharp prominences; in some areas, localized cast padding may settle around larger prominences, increase pressure, and potentiate dermal pressure injury; although pressure may be high after applying full-length cast padding, some compacting of the padding occurs, and this provides the best form of padding to prevent dermal pressure injury; and plasma TxB2 concentrations cannot be used to predict impending dermal pressure injury in a coaptation cast.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The purpose of the prospective study reported here was to evaluate surgical preparation of canine paws. Three combinations of surgical scrub solutions and antiseptic solutions were used: (1) 7.5% povidone-iodine scrub/10% povidone-iodine solution; (2) 2% chlorhexidine acetate scrub/2% chlorhexidine diacetate solution; and (3) tincture of green soap/70% isopropyl alcohol. The control was warm (38 to 42 C) tap water.

Four microbial colony counts were used to evaluate surgical preparation of 4 paws of 8 dogs. Specimens were obtained from the paws for a baseline microbial flora count. After surgical scrub was performed, additional specimens were obtained for bacteriologic culturing. Antiseptic was applied followed by collection of another specimen for bacteriologic culturing. A final specimen was obtained following a 24-hour period under a sterile occlusive bandage.

The 3 scrub solutions and the tap water control resulted in lower colony counts following scrubbing of the paws; however, only the 3 antiseptic solutions resulted in further colony count reduction after their application. Evaluation of residual colony counts isolated from specimens taken after a 24-hour period under a sterile occlusive bandage revealed chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine scrub/antiseptic combinations to be similar in antibacterial activity, with significantly (P ≤ 0.05) lower colony counts than those from specimens of paws treated with either the tincture of green soap/isopropyl alcohol combination or the tap water control. The lack of a significant difference between the bacterial counts immediately after surgical preparation with povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine and their respective 24-hour residual counts, indicated no particular advantage to surgical preparation and occlusive bandaging 24 hours prior to surgery. However, with their residual activity, either of these antiseptics under a bandage could help keep bacterial counts low after surgery in the absence of heavy wound drainage.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of 4 commercially available multivalent modified-live virus vaccines against clinical disease, viremia, and viral shedding caused by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) in early-weaned beef calves.

ANIMALS 54 early-weaned beef steers (median age, 95 days).

PROCEDURES Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 groups and administered PBSS (group A [control]; n = 11) or 1 of 4 commercially available modified-live virus vaccines that contained antigens against BHV1, BVDV types 1 (BVDV1) and 2 (BVDV2), parainfluenza type 3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (groups B [11], C [10], D [11], and E [11]). Forty-five days after vaccination, calves were exposed simultaneously to 6 cattle persistently infected with BVDV and 8 calves acutely infected with BHV1 for 28 days (challenge exposure). For each calf, serum antibody titers against BVDV and BHV1 were determined before vaccination and before and after challenge exposure. Virus isolation was performed on nasal secretions, serum, and WBCs at predetermined times during the 28-day challenge exposure.

RESULTS None of the calves developed severe clinical disease or died. Mean serum anti-BHV1 antibody titers did not differ significantly among the treatment groups at any time and gradually declined during the study. Mean serum anti-BVDV antibody titers appeared to be negatively associated with the incidence of viremia and BVDV shedding. The unvaccinated group (A) had the lowest mean serum anti-BVDV antibody titers. The mean serum anti-BVDV antibody titers for group D were generally lower than those for groups B, C, and E.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated differences in vaccine efficacy for the prevention of BVDV viremia and shedding in early-weaned beef calves.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine titers of serum antibodies against 3 genotypes of bovine parainfluenza 3 virus (BPI3V) in unvaccinated ungulates in Alabama.

ANIMALS 62 cattle, goats, and New World camelids from 5 distinct herds and 21 captured white-tailed deer.

PROCEDURES Serum samples were obtained from all animals for determination of anti-BPI3V antibody titers, which were measured by virus neutralization assays that used indicator (reference) viruses from each of the 3 BPI3V genotypes (BPI3V-A, BPI3V-B, and BPI3V-C). The reference strains were recent clinical isolates from US cattle. Each sample was assayed in triplicate for each genotype. Animals with a mean antibody titer ≤ 2 for a particular genotype were considered seronegative for that genotype.

RESULTS Animals seropositive for antibodies against BPI3V were identified in 2 of 3 groups of cattle and the group of New World camelids. The geometric mean antibody titer against BPI3V-B was significantly greater than that for BPI3V-A and BPI3V-C in all 3 groups. All goats, captive white-tailed deer, and cattle in the third cattle group were seronegative for all 3 genotypes of the virus.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that BPI3V-A may no longer be the predominant genotype circulating among ungulates in Alabama. This may be clinically relevant because BPI3V is frequently involved in the pathogenesis of bovine respiratory disease complex, current vaccines contain antigens against BPI3V-A only, and the extent of cross-protection among antibodies against the various BPI3V genotypes is unknown.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether administration of 2 doses of a multivalent, modified-live virus vaccine prior to breeding of heifers would provide protection against abortion and fetal infection following exposure of pregnant heifers to cattle persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and cattle with acute bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) infection.

Design—Randomized controlled clinical trial.

Animals—33 crossbred beef heifers, 3 steers, 6 bulls, and 25 calves.

Procedures—20 of 22 vaccinated and 10 of 11 unvaccinated heifers became pregnant and were commingled with 3 steers PI with BVDV type 1a, 1b, or 2 for 56 days beginning 102 days after the second vaccination (administered 30 days after the first vaccination). Eighty days following removal of BVDV-PI steers, heifers were commingled with 3 bulls with acute BHV1 infection for 14 days.

Results—After BVDV exposure, 1 fetus (not evaluated) was aborted by a vaccinated heifer; BVDV was detected in 0 of 19 calves from vaccinated heifers and in all 4 fetuses (aborted after BHV1 exposure) and 6 calves from unvaccinated heifers. Bovine herpesvirus 1 was not detected in any fetus or calf and associated fetal membranes in either treatment group. Vaccinated heifers had longer gestation periods and calves with greater birth weights, weaning weights, average daily gains, and market value at weaning, compared with those for calves born to unvaccinated heifers.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Prebreeding administration of a modified-live virus vaccine to heifers resulted in fewer abortions and BVDV-PI offspring and improved growth and increased market value of weaned calves.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association