OBJECTIVE To evaluate the usefulness of injection of indocyanine green (ICG) solution with near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging for transcutaneous detection of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) and their associated lymphatic vessels in the oral mucosa of healthy dogs.
ANIMALS 6 adult purpose-bred research hounds.
PROCEDURES Each dog was sedated, and 1 mL of ICG solution was injected into the gingival mucosa dorsal to the right maxillary canine tooth. Subsequently, NIR fluorescence imaging was used to transcutaneously detect the lymphatic vessels and SLNs. The distance between the injection site and each SLN was measured. Time to first evidence of node fluorescence was recorded, and velocity of ICG movement was calculated. A slide preparation of a fine-needle aspiration sample of the fluorescing structure underwent cytologic examination (to confirm presence of lymphatic tissue) and NIR fluorescence imaging (to confirm presence of ICG).
RESULTS The ipsilateral mandibular lymphocentrum was the SLN in all dogs. The time to visually detectable fluorescence ranged from 4 to 15 minutes (mean ± SD, 8.8 ± 3.76 minutes). The mean velocity was 1.94 ± 0.93 cm/min. Fluorescence was not observed in the contralateral lymph nodes. Each fluorescing structure was confirmed to be lymphatic tissue, and NIR fluorescence imaging revealed that ICG was present in the sampled SLN.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that injection of ICG solution with NIR fluorescence imaging can be used to transcutaneously identify SLNs along with associated lymphatic vessels in the oral mucosa of healthy dogs. Time from injection to identification of fluorescence was rapid with prolonged retention of material within the SLN, indicating that this procedure could be performed during surgery.
Case Description—A 6-month-old female domestic shorthair cat was admitted for evaluation of intermittent clinical signs of hematuria and inappropriate urination for the past 2 months.
Clinical Findings—Transabdominal ultrasonography revealed a multilayered mass in the urinary bladder apex consistent with full-thickness invagination of the bladder wall.
Treatment and Outcome—Exploratory surgery was performed, and partial inversion of the urinary bladder was confirmed. The invaginated bladder apex was manually reduced, and partial cystectomy was performed to remove the invaginated section of bladder wall. Histologic findings were consistent with vascular congestion and edema secondary to partial invagination. Bacterial culture of a section of the bladder mucosa demonstrated concurrent bacterial urinary tract infection. Clinical signs resolved following surgical resection of the bladder apex and antimicrobial treatment for the concurrent urinary tract infection.
Clinical Relevance—Partial invagination of the urinary bladder should be considered in the differential diagnosis for cats with clinical signs of hematuria, stranguria, and inappropriate urination. A diagnosis may be made on the basis of detection of invaginated tissue in the bladder apex during abdominal ultrasonography.
OBJECTIVE To compare rates of major intraoperative complications and survival to hospital discharge between surgical ligation (SL) and canine ductal occluder (CDO) implantation for treatment of dogs with left-to-right shunting patent ductus arteriosus (PDA).
DESIGN Retrospective cohort study.
ANIMALS 120 client-owned dogs with left-to-right shunting PDA (62 treated by SL and 58 treated by CDO implantation).
PROCEDURES Data were retrieved from medical records of included dogs regarding signalment, medical history, vertebral heart scale, preoperative echocardiographic findings, complications encountered during surgery, and durations of anesthesia and surgery (SL or CDO implantation). Data were compared between dogs treated by SL and those treated by CDO implantation.
RESULTS Dogs treated by CDO implantation were significantly older and heavier than dogs treated by SL and had more pathological cardiac remodeling (as indicated by mitral regurgitation scores, left atrial-to-aortic root diameter ratios, and fractional shortening values). Durations of anesthesia and surgery were also significantly longer for CDO implantation versus SL. The major complication rate for dogs treated by SL (6/62 [10%]) was significantly greater than that for dogs treated by CDO implantation (0/58 [0%]). One dog in the SL group died during surgery. Overall rate of survival to hospital discharge was 99% (119/120).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Both SL and CDO implantation were viable methods for PDA attenuation in the evaluated dogs. Although a greater proportion of dogs had major complications during the SL procedure, the 2 procedures had comparable rates of survival to hospital discharge.
OBJECTIVE To determine whether cellophane banding secured with locking polymer clips on cadaveric splenic veins would cause less CT imaging artifact and achieve equivalent mechanical strength, compared with cellophane banding secured with metal vascular clips.
ANIMALS 10 canine cadavers.
PROCEDURES Clips of each material were applied to each cadaver in a crossover design study. Triple-layer cellophane bands secured with 4 medium-large or large polymer or metal clips were placed on cadaveric splenic veins and evaluated by use of CT. Beam-hardening artifact was assessed by artifact length, attenuation, and a subjective grading scale ranging from 1 to 3 for mild to severe imaging artifacts. Secured cellophane bands were mechanically tested to determine force-deformation curves and yield forces. Findings for clip methods were compared with a 1-way ANOVA with a Tukey post-test.
RESULTS For metal clips, beam-hardening artifact lengths and subjective artifact grades were significantly higher, whereas attenuation values were significantly lower, than findings for polymer clips. Polymer clips were significantly lower in strength than metal clips with mean ± SD yield loads of 1.9 ± 0.6 N (medium-large polymer clips), 2.8 ± 1.3 N (large polymer clips), 6.0 ± 1.9 N (medium-large metal clips), and 8.4 ± 2.7 N (large metal clips).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Use of locking polymer clips to secure cellophane banding resulted in less CT imaging artifact and mechanical strength, compared with use of metal vascular clips. Use of locking polymer clips may allow improved assessment of postoperative CT imaging in dogs with extrahepatic portosystemic shunts, which warrants in vivo clinical evaluation.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the in vitro effect of 20% N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the viscosity of normal canine bile.
ANIMALS Bile samples obtained from 10 adult dogs euthanized for reasons unrelated to biliary disease.
PROCEDURES Each sample was centrifuged to remove particulates, then divided into 3 aliquots. One aliquot remained untreated (control). Each of the other aliquots was diluted 1:4 with 20% NAC or sterile water. The viscosity of all samples was measured with a rotational viscometer at 25°C. Viscosity of control samples was measured immediately after centrifugation and at 1 and 24 hours after treatment application to the diluted samples. Viscosity of diluted samples was measured at 1 and 24 hours after treatment application.
RESULTS Mean viscosity differed significantly among the 3 groups at both 1 and 24 hours after treatment application. Relative to control samples, the addition of NAC and sterile water decreased the viscosity by approximately 3.35 mPa·s (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.58 to 5.12 mPa·s) and 2.74 mPa·s (95% CI, 1.33 to 4.14 mPa·s), respectively. Mean viscosity of the NAC-treated samples was approximately 0.61 mPa·s (95% CI, 0.21 to 1.01 mPa·s) less than that for the sterile water–treated samples.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that in vitro dilution of canine bile 1:4 with 20% NAC significantly decreased the viscosity of the resulting mixture. Further research is necessary to determine whether NAC is a safe and effective noninvasive treatment for dogs with persistent biliary sludge or gallbladder mucoceles.
To describe veterinary house officers’ perceptions of dimensions of well-being during postgraduate training and to identify potential areas for targeted intervention.
303 house officers.
A 62-item questionnaire was generated by use of an online platform and sent to house officers at participating institutions in October 2020. Responses were analyzed for trends and associations between selected variables.
239 residents, 45 rotating interns, and 19 specialty interns responded to the survey. The majority of house officers felt that their training program negatively interfered with their exercise habits, diet, and social engagement. House officers reported engaging in exercise significantly less during times of clinical responsibility, averaging 1.6 exercise sessions/wk (SD ± 0.8) on clinical duty and 2.4 exercise sessions/wk (SD ± 0.9) when not on clinical duty (P < 0.001). Ninety-four percent of respondents reported experiencing some degree of anxiety regarding their physical health, and 95% of house officers reported feeling some degree of anxiety regarding their current financial situation. Overall, 47% reported that their work-life balance was unsustainable for > 1 year; there was no association between specialty and sustainability of work-life balance. Most house officers were satisfied with their current training program, level of clinical responsibility, and mentorship.
Veterinary house officers demonstrated a poor balance between the demands of postgraduate training and maintenance of personal health. Thoughtful interventions are needed to support the well-being of veterinary house officers.
To provide updated information on the distribution of histopathologic types of primary pulmonary neoplasia in dogs and evaluate the effect of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in dogs with pulmonary carcinoma.
Medical records of dogs that underwent lung lobectomy for removal of a primary pulmonary mass were reviewed, and histopathologic type of lesions was determined. The canine lung carcinoma stage classification system was used to determine clinical stage for dogs with pulmonary carcinoma.
Pulmonary carcinoma was the most frequently encountered tumor type (296/340 [87.1%]), followed by sarcoma (26 [7.6%]), adenoma (11 [3.2%]), and pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor (5 [1.5%]); there was also 1 plasmacytoma and 1 carcinosarcoma. Twenty (5.9%) sarcomas were classified as primary pulmonary histiocytic sarcoma. There was a significant difference in median survival time between dogs with pulmonary carcinomas (399 days), dogs with histiocytic sarcomas (300 days), and dogs with neuroendocrine tumors (498 days). When dogs with pulmonary carcinomas were grouped on the basis of clinical stage, there were no significant differences in median survival time between dogs that did and did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy.
Results indicated that pulmonary carcinoma is the most common cause of primary pulmonary neoplasia in dogs; however, nonepithelial tumors can occur. Survival times were significantly different between dogs with pulmonary carcinoma, histiocytic sarcoma, and neuroendocrine tumor, emphasizing the importance of recognizing the relative incidence of these various histologic diagnoses. The therapeutic effect of adjuvant chemotherapy in dogs with pulmonary carcinoma remains unclear and warrants further investigation.