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  • Author or Editor: Katrina R. Viviano x
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OBJECTIVE To evaluate the clinical performance of a commercially available compartmentalized urine culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test plate (CCSP) for identification of canine bacteriuria and assessment of isolate antimicrobial susceptibility.

DESIGN Cross-sectional study.

ANIMALS 71 dogs.

PROCEDURES Urine samples (n = 84) were divided into 3 aliquots. One aliquot (reference culture) was plated on culture medium ≤ 1 hour after collection for quantitative culture and testing by standard laboratory methods, another was stored at 4°C for 24 hours (to mimic storage practices at primary care facilities) and then processed by standard methods, and the third was applied to a CCSP ≤ 1 hour after collection to be processed and interpreted according to manufacturer instructions. Results were compared with those for reference culture, which was used as the criterion reference standard. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and agreement between methods was evaluated.

RESULTS 43 isolates (25 single and 9 multiple isolates) were identified in 34 reference cultures. All results for stored cultures were identical to those for reference cultures. Overall sensitivity of the CCSP method to detect bacteriuria was 93%, and specificity was 100%. Thirty-three of 43 (77%) and 19 of 33 (58%) CCSP bacterial isolates were correctly identified to the genus and species level, respectively. The CCSP antimicrobial susceptibility results matched those for reference cultures for 13 of 33 (39%) isolates evaluated.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Limitations of the CCSP method included inaccuracy of some antimicrobial susceptibility test results and failure to correctly identify bacteriuria in some dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the prevalence of subclinical bacteriuria and its natural clinical course over a 3-month period in healthy female dogs.

Design—Observational, prospective, cross-sectional study.

Animals—101 healthy client-owned female dogs.

Procedures—In all dogs, screening clinicopathologic tests and bacteriologic culture of urine were performed. In culture-positive dogs, subclinical bacteriuria was confirmed by 2 positive culture results within 2 weeks and dogs were reevaluated at 3 months.

Results—The prevalence of subclinical bacteriuria in healthy female dogs was 9 of 101 (8.9%). Three-month follow-up data were available for 8 of 9 dogs with subclinical bacteriuria. Four dogs had persistent bacteriuria, and 4 had transient bacteriuria. No dogs with subclinical bacteriuria developed clinical signs during the 3-month observation period. Subclinical bacteriuria was diagnosed in 6 of 51 (12%) young and middle-aged dogs and 3 of 50 (6.0%) senior and geriatric dogs. No significant difference was found in the prevalence of subclinical bacteriuria with age.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that subclinical bacteriuria is a nonprogressive condition in healthy female dogs and can be persistent or transient. No significant difference in the prevalence of subclinical bacteriuria in young and middle-aged dogs versus senior and geriatric dogs was detected. No dogs with subclinical bacteriuria developed clinical signs requiring antimicrobial treatment during the 3-month observation period. Healthy female dogs with subclinical bacteriuria may be a population of dogs in which antimicrobial treatment is unnecessary.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To describe the clinical findings, microbiological data, treatment, and outcome of a population of cats with suspected acute pyelonephritis (APN).


32 client-owned cats.


Retrospective case series from 2 veterinary teaching hospitals between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2020. Cats were included if they had a positive bacterial urine culture and a clinical diagnosis of acute kidney injury.


Older female cats with underlying chronic kidney disease have a higher probability to develop bacterial culture–positive acute kidney injury or APN. Escherichia coli was the most commonly cultured bacterial species, and E coli isolates with susceptibility testing were resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanate but susceptible to fluoroquinolones or third-generation cephalosporins. Of the 20 cats with available follow-up information in the medical record, 14 were alive at 3 months after hospital discharge. Markers of renal function including creatinine (P = .008), BUN (P = .005), and phosphorus (P < .001) at the time of presentation were all higher in nonsurvivors compared with survivors.


The survival rate with feline APN is higher than previous reports of acute kidney injury when all etiologies are considered. Nonsurvivors had more pronounced azotemia upon initial presentation. Amoxicillin-clavulanate was a poor empirical antimicrobial in this cohort based on the microbiological data.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association