OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on markers of synovial inflammation and signs of pain, function, bone healing, and osteoarthritis following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) in dogs with spontaneous cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR).
ANIMALS 12 client-owned dogs with unilateral CCLR.
PROCEDURES All dogs were instrumented with an accelerometer for 2 weeks before and 8 weeks after TPLO. Dogs were randomly assigned to receive LLLT (radiant exposure, 1.5 to 2.25 J/cm2; n = 6) or a control (red light; 6) treatment immediately before and at predetermined times for 8 weeks after TPLO. Owners completed a Canine Brief Pain Inventory weekly for 8 weeks after surgery. Each dog underwent a recheck appointment, which included physical and orthopedic examinations, force plate analysis, radiography and synoviocentesis of the affected joint, and evaluation of lameness and signs of pain, at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after surgery. Select markers of inflammation were quantified in synovial fluid samples. Variables were compared between the 2 groups.
RESULTS For the control group, mean ground reaction forces were greater at 2 and 4 weeks after TPLO and owner-assigned pain scores were lower during weeks 1 through 5 after TPLO, compared with corresponding values for the LLLT group.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that the LLLT protocol used had no beneficial effects on signs of pain or pelvic limb function following TPLO. Further research is necessary to evaluate the effects of LLLT and to determine the optimum LLLT protocol for dogs with CCLR.
To provide information about complication rates and the risk factors for complications with mandibulectomy and maxillectomy procedures in dogs.
459 client-owned dogs that underwent a mandibulectomy or maxillectomy between January 1, 2007, and January 1, 2018.
Inclusion criteria included a complete medical record that contained an anesthesia record, surgical report, available histopathology results, and results of CBC and serum biochemical analysis before surgery. A minimum follow-up of 90 days after surgery was required.
271 complications occurred in 171 of 459 (37.3%) dogs. Eighteen complications were not given a severity description. Of the remaining 253 complications, most were considered minor (157/253 [62.1%]). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that only increased surgical time had a significant (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.54) association with the occurrence of ≥ 1 complication. For each additional hour of surgery, the odds of complications increased by 36%. Preoperative radiation therapy or chemotherapy increased the odds of incisional dehiscence or oral fistula formation (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.3 to 7.2). Additionally, undergoing maxillectomy, compared with mandibulectomy, increased the odds of incisional dehiscence or oral fistula formation (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.1). Two hundred forty-four of 271 (90.0%) complications occurred in the perioperative period (0 to 3 months after surgery).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Compared with mandibulectomy, performing maxillectomy increased the risk for incisional dehiscence or oral fistula formation. Mandibulectomy and maxillectomy had a moderate risk for a complication.