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  • Author or Editor: Kati Salla x
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OBJECTIVE To compare cardiovascular effects of premedication with medetomidine alone and with each of 3 doses of MK-467 or after glycopyrrolate in dogs subsequently anesthetized with isoflurane.

ANIMALS 8 healthy purpose-bred 5-year-old Beagles.

PROCEDURES In a randomized crossover study, each dog received 5 premedication protocols (medetomidine [10 μg/kg, IV] alone [MED] and in combination with MK-467 at doses of 50 [MMK50], 100 [MMK100], and 150 [MMK150] μg/kg and 15 minutes after glycopyrrolate [10 μg/kg, SC; MGP]), with at least 14 days between treatments. Twenty minutes after medetomidine administration, anesthesia was induced with ketamine (0.5 mg/kg, IV) and midazolam (0.1 mg/kg, IV) increments given to effect and maintained with isoflurane (1.2%) for 50 minutes. Cardiovascular variables were recorded, and blood samples for determination of plasma dexmedetomidine, levomedetomidine, and MK-467 concentrations were collected at predetermined times. Variables were compared among the 5 treatments.

RESULTS The mean arterial pressure and systemic vascular resistance index increased following the MED treatment, and those increases were augmented and obtunded following the MGP and MMK150 treatments, respectively. Mean cardiac index for the MMK100 and MMK150 treatments was significantly greater than that for the MGP treatment. The area under the time-concentration curve to the last sampling point for dexmedetomidine for the MMK150 treatment was significantly lower than that for the MED treatment.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated concurrent administration of MK-467 with medetomidine alleviated medetomidine-induced hemodynamic changes in a dose-dependent manner prior to isoflurane anesthesia. Following MK-467 administration to healthy dogs, mean arterial pressure was sustained at acceptable levels during isoflurane anesthesia.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To assess the possible impact of medetomidine on concentrations of alfaxalone in plasma, when coadministered as a constant rate infusion (CRI) to dogs, and to determine the possible impact of medetomidine on the cardiopulmonary effects of alfaxalone during CRI.

ANIMALS 8 healthy adult Beagles.

PROCEDURES 3 treatments were administered in a randomized crossover design as follows: 1 = saline (0.9% NaCl) solution injection, followed in 10 minutes by induction of anesthesia with alfaxalone (loading dose, 2.4 mg/kg; CRI, 3.6 mg/kg/h, for 60 minutes); 2 = medetomidine premedication (loading dose, 4.0 μg/kg; CRI, 4.0 μg/kg/h), followed by alfaxalone (as in treatment 1); and, 3 = medetomidine (as in treatment 2) and MK-467 (loading dose, 150 μg/kg; CRI, 120 μg/kg/h), followed by alfaxalone (as in treatment 1). The peripherally acting α2-adrenoceptor antagonist MK-467 was used to distinguish between the peripheral and central effects of medetomidine. Drugs were administered IV via cephalic catheters, and there was a minimum of 14 days between treatments. Cardiopulmonary parameters were measured for 70 minutes, and jugular venous blood samples were collected until 130 minutes after premedication. Drug concentrations in plasma were analyzed with liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry.

RESULTS The characteristic cardiovascular effects of medetomidine, such as bradycardia, hypertension, and reduction in cardiac index, were obtunded by MK-467. The concentrations of alfaxalone in plasma were significantly increased in the presence of medetomidine, indicative of impaired drug distribution and clearance. This was counteracted by MK-467.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The alteration in alfaxalone clearance when coadministered with medetomidine may be attributed to the systemic vasoconstrictive and bradycardic effects of the α2-adrenoceptor agonist. This could be clinically important because the use of α2-adrenoceptor agonists may increase the risk of adverse effects if standard doses of alfaxalone are used.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To compare the recurrence rate after herniorrhaphy of canine perineal hernia (PH) using elevation of the internal obturator muscle (EIOM) or fascia lata graft (FLG) and assess how clinical signs related to defecation evolve during 12 months postoperatively.


66 client-owned male dogs undergoing PH surgery between March 1, 2017, and December 31, 2020.


Dogs were randomized into 2 groups (EIOM = 36; FLG = 30) applying 2 stratification factors: preoperative bladder location and the defecation signs score (DSS). Follow-up visits were at 2 weeks and 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. The main outcome, the recurrence of PH was evaluated by rectal examination. We evaluated the noninferiority of FLG to EIOM from the difference in recurrence proportions between the techniques (95% CI), comparing the CI with a pre-defined noninferiority margin (15%). To evaluate defecation signs, the DSS was calculated from the owner questionnaire and assessed with a linear mixed model (P < .05 significant).


In 63 dogs attending the 12-month follow-up, the recurrence rate was 8.8% (3/34) in the EIOM and 10.3% (3/29) in the FLG group. The CI (–11.94% to 14.99%) was below the pre-defined margin, indicating the noninferiority of FLG. After surgery, the DSS decreased (P < .001), remaining low during the follow-up.


FLG was non-inferior to EIOM when considering recurrence. The DSS decreased postoperatively and complications were uncommon. FLG is a useful alternative for the treatment of canine PH.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of the peripherally acting α2-adrenoceptor antagonist MK-467 on cardiopulmonary function in sheep sedated with medetomidine and ketamine.

ANIMALS 9 healthy adult female sheep.

PROCEDURES Each animal received an IM injection of a combination of medetomidine (30 μg/kg) and ketamine (1 mg/kg; Med-Ket) alone and Med-Ket and 3 doses of MK-467 (150, 300, and 600 μg/kg) in a randomized blinded 4-way crossover study. Atipamezole (150 μg/kg, IM) was administered 60 minutes later to reverse sedation. Cardiopulmonary variables and sedation scores were recorded, and drug concentrations in plasma were analyzed. Data were analyzed with a repeated-measures ANCOVA and 1-way ANOVA. Reference limits for the equivalence of sedation scores were set at 0.8 and 1.25.

RESULTS Heart rate, cardiac output, and Pao2 decreased and mean arterial blood pressure, central venous pressure, and systemic vascular resistance increased after Med-Ket alone. Administration of MK-467 significantly alleviated these effects, except for the decrease in cardiac output. After sedation was reversed with atipamezole, no significant differences were detected in cardiopulmonary variables among the treatments. Administration of MK-467 did not significantly alter plasma concentrations of medetomidine, ketamine, norketamine, or atipamezole. Sedation as determined on the basis of overall sedation scores was similar among treatments.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Concurrent administration of MK-467 alleviated cardiopulmonary effects in sheep sedated with Med-Ket without affecting sedation or reversal with atipamezole.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research