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Case Description—A 5-month-old captive female striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) was evaluated because of lethargy, signs of depression, azotemia, and erythema of the skin around the eyes.

Clinical Findings—Antemortem diagnostic tests revealed renal disease but failed to identify an etiologic agent. A diagnosis of severe nonsuppurative interstitial nephritis was made on the basis of results of histologic examination of renal biopsy specimens.

Treatment and Outcome—The skunk was administered isotonic fluids SC daily and later every other day because of the handling-related stress. Because of the skunk's deteriorating condition, it was euthanized after 24 days of supportive care. Aleutian disease was diagnosed on the basis of positive results of a PCR assay that targeted the DNA from Aleutian disease virus (ADV); positive results for ADV were also obtained by use of plasma counterimmunoelectrophoresis and an ELISA. Genetic sequencing of the 365-base pair PCR product revealed 90% sequence identity with mink ADV.

Clinical Relevance—In the skunk of this report, infection with a skunk-specific parvovirus resulted in clinical signs and pathologic changes similar to those associated with ADV infection in mink. For skunks with signs of renal failure, differential diagnoses should include parvovirus infection. In confirmed cases of infection with this ADV-like virus, appropriate quarantine and biosecurity measures should be in place to prevent spread to other susceptible animals within a zoological collection.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To measure antibody titers against bovine coronavirus (BCV), determine frequency of BCV in nasal swab specimens, and compare calves treated for bovine respiratory tract disease (BRD) between those given an intranasally administered vaccine and control calves.

Design—Randomized clinical trial.

Animals—414 heifer calves.

Procedure—Intranasal BCV antigen concentration and antibody titer against BCV were measured on entry to a feedlot. Calves were randomly assigned to receive 3.0 mL of a modified-live virus vaccine against bovine enteric coronavirus and rotavirus or 3.0 mL of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Calves were confined to 1 of 2 pens, depending on vaccination status, for a minimum of 17 days of observation (range, 17 to 99). Selection of calves for treatment of BRD and scoring for severity of disease were done by veterinarians unaware of treatment status.

Results—Intranasal BCV (125/407 [31%]) and serum antibody titers ≥ 20 against BCV (246/396 [62%]) were identified in calves entering the feedlot. Vaccination was associated with significant decrease in risk of treatment for BRD; intranasal BCV on entry to the feedlot was associated with increased risk of treatment. Univariate analysis revealed that control calves with intranasal BRD on entry to the feedlot and those with antibody titer < 20 were significantly more likely to be treated for BRD.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These data provide further evidence of an association between BCV and respiratory tract disease in feedlot calves. An intranasally administered vaccine appeared to reduce risk of treatment for BRD. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:726–731)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association