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Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of and clinical features associated with incidental adrenal gland lesions (IAGLs) discovered during abdominal ultrasonography in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—151 dogs with an IAGL and 400 control dogs.

Procedures—Reports of ultrasonographic examinations of the abdomen of dogs performed during a 3.5-year period were reviewed. Adrenal glands were classified as having an IAGL if a nodule or mass was described or the width of either gland was ≥ 10 mm. For dogs with an IAGL, information regarding signalment, concurrent disorders, and outcome was obtained from the medical record. Findings were compared with those in a control population of 400 dogs examined during the same period.

Results—An IAGL was detected in 151 of 3,748 (4%) dogs. Dogs with an IAGL were significantly older (median age, 11.25 years) and heavier (median body weight, 21 kg [46.2 lb]) than the control population (median age, 9.5 years; median body weight, 14 kg [30.8 lb]). Malignant tumors were reported in 6 of 20 (30%) dogs that underwent adrenal glandectomy or necropsy and had a maximum IAGL dimension that ranged from 20 to 46 mm; benign lesions all had a maximum dimension < 20 mm. Various coincidental conditions were reported in dogs with an IAGL, including nonadrenal gland malignant neoplasia in 43 (28.5%) dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IAGLs were more likely in dogs ≥ 9 years of age. On the basis of this small data set, malignancy should be suspected for IAGLs ≥ 20 mm in maximum dimension.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To evaluate indications for and complications, efficacy, and effects on renal function of unilateral nephrectomy in dogs with renal disease, and to evaluate the role that scintigraphy had in the decision to excise a kidney.

Design

Retrospective case series.

Animals

30 dogs with renal disease that underwent unilateral nephrectomy. A comparison group of 12 dogs with renal calculi that underwent renal scintigraphy but not nephrectomy was included.

Results

Indications for nephrectomy included renal or ureteral calculi (n = 10), renal mass (8), chronic pyelonephritis (5), perirenal mass (3), severe hydronephrosis and hydroureter (3), and renal hypoplasia with ureteral ectopia (1). None of the dogs were azotemic before surgery. Renal scintigraphy apparently influenced the decision to perform nephrectomy, because in 14 of 16 dogs that underwent nephrectomy, the affected kidney contributed ≤ 33% of the total glomerular filtration rate, but in 6 of 8 comparison dogs that underwent nephrotomy, the affected kidney contributed > 33% of total glomerular filtration rate. Complications of nephrectomy included oliguria (5) and organ laceration (2). Mean ± SD final serum creatinine concentration for 16 dogs alive at least 6 months after nephrectomy was 2.2 ± 1.8 mg/dl. Three dogs had chronic renal failure of undetermined cause at the time of death. Nephrectomy did not completely resolve the underlying disease in 13 dogs. Renal function was evaluated in 6 dogs 2 to 3.5 years after nephrectomy and was impaired in 4. None of the dogs were anemic, azotemic, proteinuric, or hypertensive. Survival time varied depending on the underlying disease.

Clinical Implications

Multiple factors contributed to the decision to perform nephrectomy. Unilateral nephrectomy resulted in few serious complications and was not detrimental to the remaining kidney, but did not always resolve the underlying disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:2020-2026)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association