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  • Author or Editor: Kathy A. Beck x
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Summary

A new radiographic projection of the femur was evaluated for use in the assessment of fracture or osteotomy repair in small animals. The view is obtained by directing the x-ray beam horizontally through the hind limb, from caudad to craniad, with the animal positioned in lateral recumbency, the hip flexed, and the stifle extended. Views obtained, using the new projection, were compared with the standard ventrodorsal views of the pelvis, with hind limbs extended. Osteotomy lines in the femoral shaft were significantly (P < 0.01) more visible on the horizontal beam view. Significant difference was not evident in visibility of fracture lines between the 2 radiographic projections. The horizontal beam view was easily obtained, and equivalent to the standard ventrodorsal view for radiographic evaluation of femoral fracture and osteotomy repair.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

We tested the hypothesis that treatment of growing, susceptible (to hip dysplasia) pups by im administration of glycosaminoglycan polysulfates would mitigate the signs of incipient hip dysplasia. In 1 experiment, 7 pups, selected at random from 2 litters, were administered glycosaminoglycan polysulfates (2.5 mg/kg of body weight, im) twice weekly, and 7 control pups from the same litters were given sterile buffered 0.9% saline solution from the age of 6 weeks to 8 months. Hip joints were examined by radiography, with pups in the standard, limbs-extended position. At 8 months of age, all pups in this experiment did not manifest femoral head subluxation radiographically. The Norberg angle, a measure of coxofemoral congruity, improved from a mean ± sem value of 102° ± 1° in controls to 106° ± 1° in treated pups (P = 0.008). Pups were not subjected to necropsy.

In the second experiment, 8 pups were selected at random from 2 litters and were administered 5 mg of glycosaminoglycan polysulfates/kg, im, twice weekly from 6 weeks to 8 months of age. Similarly, 8 control pups were administered saline solution. At 8 months of age, hip joints were examined by radiography with pups in the standard position; at necropsy, intra-articular tissues were evaluated macroscopically and biochemically. Of 8 treated pups, none had subluxation radiographically, whereas 4 of 8 control dogs had femoral head subluxation. Mean Norberg angle on the radiographs was 109.7° ± 1.6° for the treated group and was 101.5° ± 1.6° for controls, representing a mean improvement in coxofemoral congruity of 8.2° in the treated pups. The radiographic diagnosis (normal vs dysplastic) and the Norberg angle measurements were significantly (P = 0.04 and 0.002, respectively) different for treated and control pups.

At necropsy, 1 of 8 treated pups had cartilage degeneration, whereas 4 of 8 control pups had cartilage degeneration. The mean pathologic score determined for the hip joints of treated pups was 1.6 ± 0.8, whereas for those of controls, the score was 3.3 ± 1.2 (P = 0.09). Normal (disease-free) pups had hip pathologic scores of zero. The mean fibronectin content of femoral head articular cartilage was reduced from 2.19 ± 0.61 μg/mg in nontreated pups to 0.59 ± 0.56 μg/mg for treated pups (P = 0.04).

Fibronectin content was used as a measure of the extent of cartilage degeneration, and the cartilage of disease-free hip joints contained 0.32 ± 0.03 μg/mg. The mean proteoglycan content of the cartilage was unaffected by drug treatment. A trend was evident for lower synovial fluid volume and lower ligament volume (more normal volumes) in treated pups, but the differences were not statistically significant.

Hip joint laxity was assessed by use of a distraction method during radiogaphy of pups in experiments 1 and 2. The differences in laxity determinations between the treated and control pups were not statistically significant.

Taken together, the data indicated that im administration of gycosaminoglycan polysulfates from 6 weeks to 8 months of age in growing pups that were susceptible to hip dysplasia resulted in less subluxation, as determined from the standard radiographic projection. Treated pups had closer coxofemoral congruity when they were 8 months old (P < 0.05); at necropsy, the joint pathologic scores of treated pups indicated a trend toward improvement (P < 0.09), but the differences were not statistically significant. The mechanism of action for this drug effect is unknown.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Fourteen cows were subjected to thoracotomy as an aid in the treatment of either septic pericarditis (n = 7) or unilateral pleuritis (fibrous or purulent; n = 7). Thoracic lesions were primary in 4 cows, secondary to traumatic reticuloperitonitis in 9 cows, and secondary to extension of a liver abscess in 1 cow. Thoracotomy was performed on 9 cows under local anesthesia. Surgery was performed on 5 cows under general anesthesia; 2 died during anesthesia, and 2 others were euthanatized. Of the 10 cows allowed to recover from surgery, 4 had pericarditis and 6 had pleuritis. Four cows with pleuritis had thoracic abscesses. All but 1 cow with pericarditis died or were euthanatized, and 5 of the 6 cows with pleuritis were discharged from the hospital. A year after surgery, 1 cow was culled because of infertility, and the other 5 cows were returned to production.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

The effect of prior Rhodococcus equi-induced pneumonia on pulmonary health was investigated in 5 horses (< 24 months old) using endoscopy, radiography, hematologic and bronchoalveolar lavage analyses, and pulmonary function testing. Rhodococcus equi-induced pnuemonia had been diagnosed in principal horses when they were foals. Diagnosis was based on positive results of transtracheal aspiration and thoracic radiography at the time of initial clinical examination. Results of reevalution of the respiratory system of these horses (R + ) were compared with those of 5 age-matched healthy horses (R −) that lacked clinical or historical evidence of foalhood pneumonia.

Significant differences in variables between the 2 groups of horses were not evident. In both groups, most horses had radiographic evidence of an accentuated bronchointerstitial pattern, although results of analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage specimens were normal and mononuclear cells predominated. Variability in results of the pulmonary function tests was observed within and between the 2 groups of horses. Only normalized dynamic lung compliance was slightly lower in the previously infected horses, but this difference was not significant. We concluded that horses previously infected with and successfuly treated for R equi-induced pneumonia do not have detectable evidence of residual lung damage.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

A mucosal lesion was created in the center of each test sinus of 6 mature, healthy, nonlactating Holstein cows by resecting a circumferential band of mucosa. Each lesion was then treated by implantation of strip grafts of autogenous oral mucosa, temporary silastic tube implant, or a combination of strip grafts and temporary silastic tube implant. All teats were evaluated for patency 6 weeks after treatment, and tube implants were removed through a second thelotomy incision. All teats were reevaluated for gross and radiographic patency 12 weeks after treatment, and teats were collected for histologic evaluation of lesions. All 4 teats treated with grafts only were obstructed at 6 and 12 weeks after treatment. Incomplete coverage of the lesion with mucosa was observed in all 4 teats. The major source of obstruction was proliferation of epithelium and keratin into the lumen. All 8 teats treated with temporary silastic tube implants alone were patent at 6 weeks after treatment, but were obstructed at 12 weeks after treatment. Foci of mucosa at the lesion site were detected in only 2 of the 8 teats. Obstruction resulted from proliferation of granulation tissue into the lumen. All 12 teats treated with grafts and a temporary tube implant were patent at 6 weeks after treatment and 11 of 12 were patent at 12 weeks after treatment, although marked luminal narrowing was evident in 9 of 11 teats. Partial to complete coverage of the lesion with mucosa was seen in all teats. Proliferative granulation tissue, epithelium, and keratin contributed to luminal narrowing in 10 of 11 patent teats. Bacteriologic culture of quarters from 6 of the 11 teats patent at the final evaluation yielded pathogens.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

A study was done to determine whether radiographic-distraction measurement of coxofemoral joint (hip) laxity at 4 and 8 months of age can serve as a predictor of hip dysplasia in older Labrador Retrievers. The method of Smith, Biery, and Gregor was used for radiologic examination of hips and for evaluation of radiographs. Mean (± sem) distraction laxity (ie, distraction index) for 10 adult disease-free dogs was 0.29 ± 0.05, whereas a group of 8 dogs with dysplastic hips had mean distraction index of 0.60 ± 0.10 (P < 0.05). Mean distraction index at 4 months of age for 11 pups of 4 litters from matings between dogs with normal hips was 0.39 ± 0.07, and was 0.54 ± 0.04 for 31 pups of 7 litters from matings between dogs with hip dysplasia. The distraction index and, thus, joint laxity at that age was significantly (P = 0.0351) different for the 2 groups. The distraction index at 4 months correlated positively with the distraction index at a later age at necropsy (r = 0.43; P = 0.0289). Distraction index < 0.4 at 4 months of age predicted normal hips in 88% of cases and distraction index ≥ 0.4 predicted hip dysplasia in 57% of the dogs. Logistic regression modeling indicated that the odds of a hip being normal decreased with increasing distraction index, and thus, with increasing joint laxity. The logistic regression models provided a reasonable mathematical description of the data. Based on the logistic model of the data, distraction indexes between 0.4 and 0.7 at either 4 or 8 months of age were not associated strongly enough with evidence of disease to be clinically reliable in predicting, on an individual basis, the outcome for dysplastic hip conformation when dogs were older. Index > 0.7 was associated with high probability for developing dysplastic joints and distraction index < 0.4 predicted normal hips with high probability.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Praziquantel was used successfully for treatment of a small number of dogs and 1 cat infected with Paragonimus kellicotti. To further evaluate the usefulness of this drug in treating such infections, 7 cats and 7 dogs were inoculated orally with metacercariae (12 and 20 to 22, respectively) obtained from crayfish, then were treated after the infections became patent; 2 cats and 2 dogs served as noninfected controls. Beginning 1 week before infection, and continuing weekly thereafter, physical, hematologic, and fecal examinations were performed on each animal; thoracic radiography was performed every other week. By postinoculation week 6, all dogs given metacercariae had patent infection diagnosed on the basis of positive results of fecal examination. By postinoculation week 7, 5 cats had confirmed patent infection, but 2 cats given metacercariae never had patent infection or had signs of infection. Clinical signs of infection were minor and included increased respiratory tract noise, slight inducible cough, or mild dyspnea. Transient eosinophilia was detected in dogs around postinoculation week 3. Pretreatment radiography revealed cavitated lesions in cats only; pleural lines and patchy infiltrates in cats and dogs; or pneumothorax in dogs only. The treatment regimen consisted of 23 mg of praziquantel/kg of body weight given every 8 hours for 3 days; 1 infected cat and dog were not treated. By 11 days after treatment, eggs had disappeared from the feces of infected animals, and marked resolution of lung lesions was evident radiographically. The 2 untreated animals and 1 treated dog were euthanatized and necropsied to verify lesions and their resolution. All treated animals were considered cured of infection by use of this treatment regimen.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research