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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) on morphology and compliance of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) by use of impedance planimetry in healthy dogs and to quantify the effect of changes in IAP.

ANIMALS 7 healthy, purpose-bred sexually intact male hound-cross dogs.

PROCEDURES Dogs were anesthetized, and cross-sectional area (CSA), minimal diameter (MD), LES length, LES volume, and distensibility index (DI) of the LES were evaluated by use of an endoscopic functional luminal imaging probe. For each dog, measurements were obtained before (baseline) and after creation of a pneumoperitoneum at an IAP of 4, 8, and 15 mm Hg. Order of the IAPs was determined by use of a randomization software program.

RESULTS CSA and MD at 4 and 8 mm Hg were not significantly different from baseline measurements; however, CSA and MD at 15 mm Hg were both significantly greater than baseline measurements. The LES length and LES volume did not differ significantly from baseline measurements at any IAP. The DI differed inconsistently from the baseline measurement but was not substantially affected by IAP.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Pneumoperitoneum created with an IAP of 4 or 8 mm Hg did not significantly alter LES morphology in healthy dogs. Pneumoperitoneum at an IAP of 15 mm Hg caused a significant increase in CSA and MD of the LES. Compliance of the LES as measured by the DI was not greatly altered by pneumoperitoneum at an IAP of up to 15 mm Hg.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

To evaluate suturing skills of veterinary students using 3 common performance assessments (PAs) and to compare findings to data obtained by an electromyographic armband.

SAMPLE

16 second-year veterinary students.

PROCEDURES

Students performed 4 suturing tasks on synthetic tissue models 1, 3, and 5 weeks after a surgical skills course. Digital videos were scored by 4 expert surgeons using 3 PAs (an Objective Structured Clinical Examination [OSCE]- style surgical binary checklist, an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill [OSATS] checklist, and a surgical Global Rating Scale [GRS]). Surface electromyography (sEMG) data collected from the dominant forearm were input to machine learning algorithms. Performance assessment scores were compared between experts and correlated to task completion times and sEMG data. Inter-rater reliability was calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Inter-rater agreement was calculated using percent agreement with varying levels of tolerance.

RESULTS

Reliability was moderate for the OSCE and OSATS checklists and poor for the GRS. Agreement was achieved for the checklists when moderate tolerance was applied but remained poor for the GRS. sEMG signals did not correlate well with checklist scores or task times, but features extracted from signals permitted task differentiation by routine statistical comparison and correct task classification using machine learning algorithms.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Reliability and agreement of an OSCE-style checklist, OSATS checklist, and surgical GRS assessment were insufficient to characterize suturing skills of veterinary students. To avoid subjectivity associated with PA by raters, further study of kinematics and EMG data is warranted in the surgical skills evaluation of veterinary students.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate outcomes in cats undergoing subtotal colectomy for the treatment of idiopathic megacolon and to determine whether removal versus nonremoval of the ileocecocolic junction (ICJ) was associated with differences in outcome.

ANIMALS

166 client-owned cats.

PROCEDURES

For this retrospective cohort study, medical records databases of 18 participating veterinary hospitals were searched to identify records of cats with idiopathic megacolon treated by subtotal colectomy from January 2000 to December 2018. Data collection included perioperative and surgical variables, complications, outcome, and owner perception of the procedure. Data were analyzed for associations with outcomes of interest, and Kaplan-Meier survival time analysis was performed.

RESULTS

Major perioperative complications occurred in 9.9% (15/151) of cats, and 14% (12/87) of cats died as a direct result of treatment or complications of megacolon. The median survival time was not reached. Cats with (vs without) a body condition score < 4/9 (hazard ratio [HR], 5.97), preexisting heart disease (HR, 3.21), major perioperative complications (HR, 27.8), or long-term postoperative liquid feces (HR, 10.4) had greater hazard of shorter survival time. Constipation recurrence occurred in 32% (24/74) of cats at a median time of 344 days and was not associated with retention versus removal of the ICJ; however, ICJ removal was associated with long-term liquid feces (OR, 3.45), and a fair or poor outcome on owner assessment (OR, 3.6).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that subtotal colectomy was associated with long survival times and a high rate of owner satisfaction. Removal of the ICJ was associated with less favorable outcomes in cats of the present study.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association