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- Author or Editor: Kathryn M. Pratschke x
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CASE DESCRIPTION A 14-week-old 8.5-kg (18.7-lb) sexually intact female Springer Spaniel was evaluated because of chronic rhinitis with bilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge. The dog had a history since birth of sneezing and oronasal reflux of food and liquid.
CLINICAL FINDINGS Oral examination under anesthesia revealed a short, incompletely formed soft palate with bilateral clefts. A pseudouvula was not a prominent feature of the condition in this dog.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME The dog underwent 1-stage reconstruction of the soft palate by means of a split-thickness soft palate hinged flap and bilateral buccal mucosal rotation flaps. Long-term follow-up obtained 3 years after surgery revealed the dog to be in good general health, with resolution of oronasal reflux; however, occasional episodes of mild sneezing and nasal discharge persisted. Oral examination under sedation revealed attenuation of the bilateral clefts; however, a normal soft palate length was not achieved.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE Compared with previously described techniques, this technique offered the possibility of 1-stage reconstruction of the soft palate in dogs, rather than having 2 staged procedures performed, and a robust tissue combination that was expected to be less prone to trauma. This technique may be particularly suitable for affected dogs where a pseudouvula is not a prominent feature and appears to be applicable to a variety of skull morphologies. Owners should be made aware that the absence of normal palatine muscle within the reconstructed palate may affect function, but even where normal function is not regained, a good quality of life with minimal clinical signs may be achieved.
Objective—To evaluate the effect of body position on barrier pressure at the gastroesophageal junction in anesthetized Greyhounds and to assess alterations in barrier pressure following gastropexy.
Animals—8 adult Greyhounds.
Procedure—Barrier pressure at the gastroesophageal junction was measured by fast (1 cm/s) and slow (1 cm/10 s) withdrawal of a subminiature strain gauge transducer through the gastroesophageal junction in 8 anesthetized dogs. The effect of body position was measured. Each dog then was placed in right-lateral recumbency, and gastropexy was performed in the left flank. Additional measurements were obtained 1, 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes after gastropexy.
Results—Barrier pressure for dogs positioned in sternal recumbency (mean ± SEM, 1.1 ± 0.53 mm Hg) was significantly less than for dogs positioned in right lateral or left lateral recumbency. Following gastropexy, there was a steady increase in barrier pressure. Thirty minutes after gastropexy, barrier pressure was significantly higher (13.36 ± 3.46 mm Hg), compared with the value before surgery.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Barrier pressure in anesthetized dogs is highly variable and influenced by body position. This is most likely the result of anatomic interrelationships between the diaphragm, stomach, and terminal portion of the esophagus. Gastropexy also increases barrier pressure in the immediate postoperative period, which may be clinically relevant in terms of understanding how resolution of gastroesophageal reflux disease associated with hiatal hernia may be affected by gastropexy combined with hernia reduction. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1068–1072)
Objective—To evaluate a modified proportional margins approach to resection of mast cell tumors (MCTs) in dogs.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—40 dogs with subcutaneous and cutaneous MCTs undergoing curative intent surgery.
Procedures—Medical records were searched to identify dogs with a cytologically or histologically confirmed diagnosis of MCT that had not previously been treated surgically and that had undergone full oncological staging. In those dogs, tumors were resected with lateral margins equivalent to the widest measured diameter of the tumor and a minimum depth of 1 well-defined fascial plane deep to the tumor. Surgical margins were evaluated histologically. Cutaneous tumors were graded by use of the Patnaik system and the 2-tier system described by Kiupel et al. The prognosis for subcutaneous tumors was assessed in accordance with published recommendations. Follow-up information on dog health status was obtained through clinical examination, the dog owners, and the referring veterinarians.
Results—The 40 dogs had 47 tumors. Forty-one (87%) tumors were cutaneous, and 6 (13%) were subcutaneous. On the basis of the Patnaik system, 21 (51%) cutaneous tumors were considered grade I, 18 (44%) were considered grade II, and 2 (5%) were considered grade III. On the basis of the Kiupel system, 37 (90%) cutaneous tumors were considered low grade, and 4 (10%) were considered high grade. The prognosis for the 6 subcutaneous tumors was classified as likely resulting in a shorter (2) or longer (4) survival time. Forty tumors were deemed to have been excised with clear margins and 7 with incomplete margins. Local recurrence was not recorded for any dog but was suspected for 1 (2%) tumor, although not confirmed. Interval from tumor excision to follow-up ranged from 30 to 1,140 days (median, 420 days).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The modified proportional margins system resulted in satisfactory local disease control in dogs with MCTs.