Case Description—A 7-year-old Spaniel-crossbreed dog was evaluated for stertorous breathing and inspiratory stridor.
Clinical Findings—A temporary tracheotomy tube was placed prior to referral. Results of physical examination at our facility, including thoracic auscultation, were unremarkable. Examination of the larynx revealed a 2 × 2-cm nodular mass on the lateral aspect of the epiglottis and left arytenoid cartilage. Cytologic examination of the mass indicated septic suppurative inflammation and intracellular rod-shaped bacteria. During the procedures, decreased air movement through the temporary tracheotomy tube was detected, and the tube was replaced. A thrombus was found on the distal end of the temporary tracheotomy tube; the thrombus obstructed 90% of the tube lumen. Approximately 12 hours later, auscultation revealed decreased sounds in all lung fields. Cervical and thoracic radiography revealed an intraluminal soft tissue opacity distal to the tracheotomy tube. A thrombus that contained hair and plant material was removed from the trachea by use of an embolectomy catheter and videogastroscope. Approximately 30 hours after removal of the initial thrombus, the dog had an episode of respiratory distress. Cervical radiography revealed another intraluminal opacity. It was another thrombus, which also was removed by use of the videogastroscope.
Treatment and Outcome—Tracheoscopy was performed with a videogastroscope in an attempt to remove the thrombi. A Fogarty catheter was used to remove the initial intraluminal thrombus from the trachea.
Clinical Relevance—Airway obstruction resulting from an intraluminal thrombus in the trachea should be considered as a secondary complication after tracheotomy tube placement.
Objective—To assess the effect of computed tomography (CT) scan protocols (radiation amounts) and fabrication methods on biomodel accuracy and variability.
Sample—Cadaveric femur of a Basset Hound.
Procedures—Retroreconstructions (n = 158) were performed of 16 original scans and were visually inspected to select 17 scans to be used for biomodel fabrication. Biomodels of the 17 scans were made in triplicate by use of 3 freeform fabrication processes (stereolithography, fused deposition modeling, and 3-D printing) for 153 models. The biomodels and original bone were measured by use of a coordinate measurement machine.
Results—Differences among fabrication methods accounted for 2% to 29% of the total observed variation in inaccuracy and differences among method-specific radiation configurations accounted for 4% to 44%. Biomodels underestimated bone length and width and femoral head diameter and overestimated cortical thickness. There was no evidence of a linear association between thresholding adjustments and biomodel accuracy. Higher measured radiation dose led to a decrease in absolute relative error for biomodel diameter and for 4 of 8 cortical thickness measurements.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The outside dimensions of biomodels have a clinically acceptable accuracy. The cortical thickness of biomodels may overestimate cortical thickness. Variability among biomodels was caused by model fabrication reproducibility and, to a lesser extent, by the radiation settings of the CT scan and differences among fabrication methods.