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  • Author or Editor: Kathleen Yvorchuk-St-Jean x
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To evaluate the effect of a porous bovine-derived collagen membrane (pbcm) on the rates of wound healing, cellular events, presence of granulation tissue, and appearance at termination of the study in surgically created full-thickness cutaneous wounds of the distal portion of the extremities of horses.


Treated wounds (n = 12) received a pbcm dressing and control wounds were covered with a nonadherent dressing. Forelimbs and hind limbs were cross paired; the right forelimb and left hind limb always received the same dressing application, as did the left forelimb and right hind limb. Limbs pairs were then randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 dressings.


Six healthy male horses (3 sexually intact, 3 geldings) ranging from 2 to 10 (mean, 6.5) years and weighing between 278 and 568 (mean, 408.5) kg were studied.


Full-thickness skin wounds (6.25 cm2) were created on the dorsal metatarsi and metacarpi of the experimental animals. A preformed pbcm dressing was evaluated in half the wounds (n = 12). Control wounds (n = 12) were dressed with a nonadherent gauze dressing. At each bandage change, wounds were subjectively assessed and were photographed, and measurements of horizontal and vertical wound dimensions were documented. Wound biopsy specimens obtained on days 2, 5, 7, 10, 21, and 31 were evaluated for presence of collagen, fibrin, inflammation, epithelium, and cellular elements of healing. Planar morphometry was used to determine total wound area and granulation area from the wound photographs. Percentage of contraction and epithelialization were calculated from these values. Linear regression analysis of the square root of the total wound area and the granulation area was performed. Wound area measurements were analyzed, using anova for repeated measures. Regressions were compared, using covariance analysis and anova. Significance was considered at P < 0.05.


Fibrin score, neutrophil score, and degree of inflammation were significantly greater in the pbcm-treated wounds. No significant differences in the total wound, epithelialized, or contraction areas were detected between the pbcm-treated and control (nonadherent-treated) wounds. Rates of wound healing were not statistically different between the 2 treatment groups, though they were significantly slower in the hind limbs, compared with the forelimbs. Scabs were formed more frequently in the pbcm-treated wounds.


Application of a porous collagen bandage was not detrimental to full-thickness cutaneous wound healing in horses.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Pharyngeal or esophageal trauma was diagnosed in 9 horses after nasogastric intubation. Evidence of trauma (edema or ulceration) was detected in the pharynx of 3 horses and in the esophagus of 6 horses. Complications associated with nasogastric intubation were first observed in 5 horses while they were intubated and in 4 horses after extubation. Clinical signs of pharyngeal or esophageal trauma were similar, and included salivation, bruxism, coughing, and nasal discharge. Treatment, including extubation, enteral feeding through a small nasogastric tube, or esophagostomy distal to the affected site, was attempted in 6 horses. Three of 6 treated horses survived, but 4 of 5 horses with perforated esophagus were euthanatized.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Effects of 2 drugs commonly used for chemical restraint of cattle were evaluated for their effect on laryngeal and pharyngeal anatomy, function, and response to stimuli. Eighteen adult Jersey cows, free of respiratory tract disease, were studied. Cows were assigned at random to 1 of 3 treatment groups. Endoscopic evaluations were performed before and at a predetermined time interval after administration of each drug. Responses to stimuli were evaluated by stimulating 7 preselected sites (epiglottis, left and right arytenoid cartilages, left and right vocal folds, and left and right dorsolateral pharyngeal walls) with a closed, transendoscopic biopsy probe. Xylazine HCl (0.05 mg/kg of body weight, IV) was administered to group-1 cows (n = 6), and endoscopy was repeated 5 minutes after administration of the drug. Xylazine (0.07 mg/kg, IV) was administered to group-2 cows (n = 6), and endoscopy was repeated 5 minutes after administration of the drug. Acepromazine maleate (0.035 mg/kg, IV) was administered to group-3 cows (n = 6), and endoscopy was repeated 10 minutes after administration of the drug. Responses to stimuli were scored as brisk (0), moderate (1), slow (2), and absent (3). Scores for responses to stimuli were compared, using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for data within groups, and a general linear models procedure, using the Kruskal-Wallis test between groups. Interobserver agreement rates were generated for each group. A value of P< 0.05 was considered significant.

Xylazine profoundly changed laryngeal sensitivity and function at both dosages. The corniculate processes of the arytenoid cartilages were observed to be in a markedly adducted position after sedation.

Response to stimuli was significantly (P = 0.03) slower than normal after sedation, using both dosages. Displacement of the soft palate dorsal to the epiglottis was persistent in 50% of the cows after stimulation tests subsequent to sedation with xylazine. Acepromazine had a mild effect on laryngeal sensitivity and function. The corniculate processes of the arytenoid cartilages were observed in paramedian position after sedation. Acepromazine did not significantly affect responses to stimuli. Effects of sedation on responses to stimuli were not significantly different for groups 1 and 2. However, effects for group 3 were significantly different from those for groups 1 and 2 (P = 0.006 and 0.004, respectively).

Endoscopic evaluation of the proximal portion of the respiratory tract of cattle should be performed without sedation, when possible. If sedation is required to facilitate restraint for endoscopy, acepromazine maleate is recommended over xylazine on the basis of results of this study.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Endoscopy of the nasopharynx, pharynx, and larynx was performed in each of 25 adult Jersey cows, age and body weight of which ranged from 2 to 6 years and 300 to 365 kg, respectively. The endoscopic appearance of normal anatomic structures of the proximal portion of the airway were described. Observations specific to female dairy cattle were: the nasal septum, which tapered caudodorsally in the distal third of the nasal passage; the ability to observe both ethmoturbinates from the same viewing side; presence of a pharyngeal septum; the nasopharyngeal opening of the auditory tubes dorsolateral to the pharyngeal septum; and the appearance of the larynx — a triangular epiglottis with round borders and prominent corniculate process of the arytenoid cartilages. Tracheoscopy was performed in 13 cows. Of 11 cows for which the soft palate could be observed immediately after withdrawing the endoscope, 7 had dorsal displacement of the soft palate.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research