OBJECTIVE To determine the likelihood and outcome of esophageal perforation secondary to an esophageal foreign body (EFB) in dogs.
DESIGN Retrospective observational study.
ANIMALS 125 dogs evaluated for EFB at 2 veterinary teaching hospitals from January 2005 through December 2013.
PROCEDURES Data were retrieved from the medical record of each dog regarding variables hypothesized to be associated with esophageal perforation, whether esophageal perforation was present, and survival to hospital discharge. Variables were examined for associations with various outcomes.
RESULTS Bones (55/125 [44%]) and fishhooks (37/125 [30%]) were the most common types of EFBs. Fifteen (12%) dogs had an esophageal perforation (10 with a fishhook EFB and 5 with a bone EFB). No association was identified between dog body weight and esophageal perforation. Esophageal perforation was more likely in dogs with a fishhook EFB (10/37 [27%]) versus other EFBs (5/88 [6%]; OR, 6.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.9 to 9.6). Median interval from fishhook or bone ingestion to initial evaluation was significantly longer for dogs with (12 and 96 hours, respectively) versus without (1 and 24 hours, respectively) perforation. Thirteen of 15 (87%) dogs with esophageal perforation survived to hospital discharge, including all 10 dogs with perforation secondary to fishhook ingestion. Eight survivors with esophageal perforation required no surgical intervention.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Esophageal perforation was uncommon in the evaluated dogs with an EFB, and no surgical intervention was required for a large proportion of them. Fishhooks and delay between EFB ingestion and initial evaluation were risk factors for perforation.
To utilize the geometry of superficial anatomic landmarks to guide incisional location and orientation for peripheral lymphadenectomy, document deep anatomic landmarks for lymphocentrum identification, and develop novel surgical approaches to the superficial cervical, axillary, and superficial inguinal lymphocentrums in dogs.
12 canine cadavers.
2 cadavers were used for a pilot investigation to determine optimal body positioning, select superficial anatomic landmarks for lymphocentrum identification, and evaluate novel surgical approaches to the 3 lymphocentrums. These lymphocentrums were then dissected in 10 additional cadavers using these novel surgical approaches. Measurements of the distances from lymphocentrum to landmark and between landmarks were obtained for each lymphocentrum. Deep anatomic landmarks were recorded for each dissection. The mean and SD were calculated for each measurement and used to develop geometric guidelines for estimating the location of each lymphocentrum for these surgical approaches.
Each peripheral lymphocentrum was found in the same location relative to the respective, predetermined, superficial, anatomic boundaries in all cadavers. Briefly, the superficial landmarks to each lymphocentrum were as follows: (1) superficial cervical: wing of atlas, acromion process of scapula, greater tubercle of humerus; (2) axillary: caudal border of transverse head of superficial pectoral muscle, caudal triceps muscle, ventral midline; and (3) superficial inguinal: origin of pectineus muscle, ipsilateral inguinal mammary gland, ventral midline. The proposed superficial and deep surgical landmarks were identified within every cadaver. The previously undescribed surgical approaches were effective for lymphocentrum identification.
Anatomic landmarks provided in this study may help reduce surgical time and tissue trauma during peripheral lymphadenectomy in dogs. This study was also the first to describe a surgical approach to the superficial inguinal lymphocentrum and ventral approaches to the superficial cervical and axillary lymphocentrums and provided previously unpublished anatomic landmarks for a lateral approach to the superficial cervical lymphocentrum.
To evaluate outcomes of dogs with parathyroid carcinoma (PTC) treated by surgical excision and to describe the incidence of postoperative hypocalcemia, degree of hypocalcemia, duration of hospitalization, duration of calcium supplementation, and survival time
100 client-owned dogs with PTC admitted to academic, referral veterinary institutions.
In a retrospective multi-institutional study, medical records of dogs undergoing surgical excision of PTC between 2010 to 2019 were reviewed. Signalment, relevant medical history, clinical signs, clinicopathologic testing, imaging, surgical findings, intraoperative complications, histologic examination, and survival time were recorded.
100 dogs with PTC were included, and 96 dogs had clinical or incidental hypercalcemia. Common clinical signs included polyuria (44%), polydipsia (43%), hind limb paresis (22%), lethargy (21%), and hyporexia (20%). Cervical ultrasonography detected a parathyroid nodule in 91 of 91 dogs, with a single nodule in 70.3% (64/91), 2 nodules in 25.3% (23/91), and ≥ 3 nodules in 4 (4/91)% of dogs. Hypercalcemia resolved in 89 of 96 dogs within 7 days after surgery. Thirty-four percent of dogs developed hypocalcemia, on the basis of individual analyzer ranges, within 1 week after surgery. One dog had metastatic PTC to the prescapular lymph node, and 3 dogs were euthanized for refractory postoperative hypocalcemia. Estimated 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates were 84%, 65%, and 51% respectively, with a median survival time of 2 years.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Excision of PTC results in resolution of hypercalcemia and excellent long-term tumor control. Surgical excision of PTC is recommended because of resolution of hypercalcemia and a good long-term prognosis. Future prospective studies and long-term follow-up are needed to further assess primary tumor recurrence, metastasis, and incidence of postoperative hypocalcemia.
To determine long-term outcomes and factors associated with those outcomes in dogs with gastroesophageal intussusception (GEI).
36 dogs with GEI evaluated at 16 veterinary hospitals from January 2000 through January 2018.
Medical records of included dogs were reviewed to collect information regarding signalment, clinical signs, physical examination findings, blood work and diagnostic imaging results, surgical findings, and outcome. Factors were evaluated for associations with various outcomes.
Median age of dogs with GEI was 13.2 months, and males (72% [26/36]) and German Shepherd Dogs (33% [12/36]) were most common. Vomiting (67% [24/36]) and regurgitation (33% [12/36]) were the most common clinical signs. Ten of 36 (28%) dogs were euthanized without treatment, and 26 (72%) underwent treatment (25 surgically and 1 endoscopically). Twenty-three of the 26 (88%) treated dogs survived to discharge; median survival time was 995 days. At last follow-up, 15 of the 23 (65%) surviving dogs remained alive and 8 (35%) had died for reasons related to persistent regurgitation (n = 6) or reasons unrelated to GEI (2). Of the 10 dogs for which owners were contacted, 7 had persistent regurgitation, the severity of which was reduced through managed feedings. Dogs with acute (≤ 7 days) clinical signs or a previous diagnosis of megaesophagus were more likely to have persistent regurgitation than were dogs without these factors.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Treatment should be considered for dogs with GEI given the high rate of survival to discharge and median survival time. Although persistent regurgitation was common after treatment, a satisfactory outcome was possible with medical management, including managed feedings and medications.