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  • Author or Editor: Kathern E. Myrna x
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Objective—To assess the efficacy of a retrobulbar bupivacaine nerve block for postoperative analgesia following eye enucleation in dogs.

Design—Randomized controlled trial.

Animals—22 dogs.

Procedures—Client-owned dogs admitted to the hospital for routine eye enucleation were enrolled with owner consent and randomly assigned to a treatment (bupivacaine hydrochloride) or control (saline [0.9% NaCl] solution) group. Baseline subjective pain scores were recorded. Anesthesia consisted of hydromorphone and midazolam preoperatively, thiopental or propofol for induction, and isoflurane in oxygen for maintenance. An inferior-temporal palpebral retrobulbar injection of either saline solution or bupivacaine was administered. Transpalpebral eye enucleation was performed. Pain scores were recorded at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 hours after extubation (time 0) by observers masked to treatment groups. Dogs were given hydromorphone (0.2 mg/kg [0.09 mg/lb], IM or IV) as a rescue analgesic if the subjective pain score totaled ≥ 9 (out of a maximum total score of 18) or ≥ 3 in any 1 category.

Results—9 of 11 control dogs required a rescue dose of hydromorphone, but only 2 of 11 dogs in the bupivacaine treatment group required rescue analgesia. Mean time to treatment failure (ie, administration of rescue analgesia following extubation) was 0.56 hours (95% confidence interval, 0.029 to 1.095 hours) for the 11 dogs that received hydromorphone.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Retrobulbar administration of bupivacaine in dogs in conjunction with traditional premedication prior to eye enucleation was an effective form of adjunctive analgesia and reduced the need for additional postoperative analgesics.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To compare tear cortisol concentrations between horses and ponies with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) and healthy nonaged (≤ 15 years old) and aged (≥ 20 years old) horses and to determine whether serum and tear cortisol concentrations were correlated.

ANIMALS 11 horses and ponies with PPID and 20 healthy control horses and ponies (11 nonaged and 9 aged).

PROCEDURES Paired tear and serum samples were obtained from PPID and control animals. All animals were free of active ocular disease. Tear and serum cortisol concentrations were measured with an ELISA and chemiluminescent assay, respectively. Groups were compared with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests, and Spearman correlation analysis was used to examine relationships between tear and serum cortisol concentrations within groups.

RESULTS Median tear cortisol concentration was significantly higher in PPID animals than in aged control animals, despite comparable serum cortisol concentrations in PPID and aged control animals. Median tear-to-serum cortisol concentration ratios were also significantly higher in PPID animals than in aged control animals. Serum and tear cortisol concentrations were not significantly correlated in PPID or control animals.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Some horses and ponies with PPID had increased tear cortisol concentrations, compared with concentrations in healthy aged animals. Localized cortisol production in the tear film or altered cortisol binding dynamics could have contributed to this increase. Further studies are warranted to evaluate these mechanisms and to determine whether increased tear cortisol concentrations are associated with delays in corneal wound healing in horses and ponies with and without PPID.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To characterize the clinical course and long-term prognosis of a suspected novel cause of neurogenic keratoconjunctivitis sicca (nKCS) secondary to florfenicol, terbinafine hydrochloride, mometasone furoate (Claro and Neptra) or florfenicol, terbinafine, betamethasone acetate (Osurnia).


29 client-owned dogs.


Online survey and word-of-mouth recruitment were conducted to identify dogs that developed clinical signs of nKCS after application of otitis externa medication containing terbinafine and florfenicol. A retrospective analysis of medical records of dogs meeting inclusion criteria was then conducted. Included dogs had onset of clinical signs of nKCS within 1 day after application of otitis externa medications containing terbinafine and florfenicol and had documentation of low Schirmer tear test value (< 15 mm/min) of affected eyes.


29 dogs with medical records available for review met the inclusion criteria. Documented return of clinically normal tear production was identified in 24 of 29 dogs, with a median time from application of ear medication to documented return of clinically normal tear production of 86 days (range, 19 to 482 days). A corneal ulcer was diagnosed in 68% (20/29). Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed being referred to an ophthalmologist (P = .03) and having a deep ulcer (P = .02) were associated with a longer time to documentation of Schirmer tear test ≥ 15 mm/min.


Dogs that developed nKCS within 1 day after application of otitis externa medications containing terbinafine and florfenicol had a good prognosis for return of normal tear production within 1 year.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association