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  • Author or Editor: Katherine L. Peterson x
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Objective—To evaluate signalment, clinical signs, dose ingested, treatment requirements, duration of hospitalization, and outcome of dogs exposed to phenylpropanolamine.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—170 dogs with potential PPA toxicosis evaluated between 2004 and 2009.

Procedures—Dogs with potential PPA toxicosis were identified by reviewing the electronic database of an animal poison control center.

Results—66 of the 170 (39%) dogs reportedly did not develop any clinical signs. Clinical signs reported in the remaining 104 (61%) dogs included agitation (n = 40), vomiting (27), mydriasis (19), lethargy (17), tremor or twitching (16), panting (15), bradycardia (13), tachycardia (12), hypertension (11), and erythema (8). Median dose ingested for all dogs was 29 mg/kg (13.2 mg/lb). Dogs developing clinical signs had a significantly higher median dose ingested (373 mg/kg [170 mg/lb]) than did dogs that did not develop clinical signs (18 mg/kg [8.2 mg/lb]). Likewise, median dose ingested for the 123 dogs treated as inpatients (36.9 mg/kg [16.8 mg/lb]) was significantly higher than the median dose for the 14 dogs treated as outpatients (20.5 mg/kg [9.3 mg/lb]). Median duration of hospitalization was 18 hours (range, 4 to 72 hours), and hospitalization time increased as the dose ingested increased. Survival rate was 99.4% (169/170); the dog that died had ingested a dose of 145 mg/kg (65.9 mg/lb).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that with supportive care, the prognosis for dogs that had ingested an overdose of phenylpropanolamine was excellent.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


To evaluate clinical, laboratory, radiographic, ultrasonographic, surgical, and histologic findings in ferrets with insulinoma and to determine their long-term outcome.


Retrospective study.


57 ferrets with a histopathologic diagnosis of pancreatic islet cell tumor.


Medical records of ferrets with pancreatic islet cell tumors were reviewed.


Lethargy, weakness, and collapse were the most common clinical signs. All ferrets had hypoglycemia, and hyperinsulinemia was documented in 39 of 47 (83%) ferrets. Ultrasonographic examination of the abdomen revealed pancreatic nodules in 5 of 23 ferrets. Surgical treatment was performed in 50 ferrets, 3 were treated by medical management alone, and 4 did not have treatment. At the time of surgery, 1 pancreatic nodule was found in 13 (26%) ferrets and multiple nodules were found in 37 (74%) ferrets. Pancreatic carcinoma alone was found in 34 ferrets, whereas a combination of carcinoma and either hyperplasia or adenoma was found in 23 ferrets; 4 ferrets had metastasis to regional lymph nodes or liver. In 26 (53%) ferrets, hypoglycemia persisted after surgery, necessitating medical treatment with prednisone, diazoxide, or both. Sixteen (33%) ferrets had redevelopment of hypoglycemia at 1 to 23.5 months (median, 10.6 months) after surgery. Only 7 of the 50 (14%) ferrets remained euglycemic after surgery.

Clinical Implications—

In ferrets, surgical removal of insulin-secreting pancreatic islet cell tumors is recommended as definitive treatment; however, multiple pancreatic nodules are common, making complete excision of all tumor tissue difficult. Persistent hypoglycemia after surgical treatment indicates that lifelong medical management with prednisone or diazoxide or both may be necessary in many ferrets. Finally, because the insulin-secreting tumors are malignant, long-term cure and survival are not likely. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:1741–1745)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Adrenocortical adenoma, nodular hyperplasia, or carcinoma was diagnosed in 50 ferrets. Thirty-five (70%) ferrets were female and 15 (30%) were male. The mean age at which clinical signs were first noticed was 3.4 years (range, 1 to 7 years). Clinical signs included large vulva (n = 31; 89% of females), alopecia (n = 43; 86%), pruritus (n = 20; 40%), and increased consumption of water and increased urine output (n = 4; 8%). A mass was palpated at the cranial pole of the kidney during physical examination of 17 (34%) ferrets. Ultrasonography, performed on 39 of 50 ferrets, revealed a unilateral adrenal gland mass in 19 (49%). Four ferrets were anemic, and 2 ferrets were thrombocytopenic. Baseline plasma concentrations of cortisol and corticosterone were within or below the reference range in all 17 ferrets tested, whereas baseline plasma estradiol concentrations were high in 4 of the 11 ferrets (36%) tested. After adrenocorticotropic hormone (acth) administration, only 1 ferret had a slightly exaggerated response on the basis of plasma cortisol concentrations, and all 17 had normal responses on the basis of plasma corticosterone concentrations. There was little or no increase in plasma estradiol concentrations after acth administration. Of the 50 ferrets, 39 were treated by adrenalectomy. Unilateral adrenalectomy was performed in 34 ferrets in which 1 adrenal gland was large, whereas subtotal bilateral adrenalectomy was performed in 5 ferrets with bilateral adrenal disease. Five ferrets died in the immediate postoperative period, and follow-up information was available for the remaining 34, 1 to 34 months after surgery. A decrease in vulvar size was generally noticed by 2 days after surgery, and complete hair regrowth was noticed by 2 months.

Because clinical signs resolved after adrenalectomy, it was likely that the adrenocortical tumors and nodular hyperplasias of the adrenal gland were hyperfunctional. However, these ferrets did not have excessively high circulating concentrations of cortisol. At present, we recommended that diagnosis of adrenocortical disease in ferrets be made on the basis of characteristic clinical signs, results of abdominal ultrasonography, and finding large adrenal glands during surgery. Results of acth stimulation tests, with determination of plasma cortisol or corticosterone concentrations, were of no value in the diagnosis.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association