To describe clinical findings, treatments, and outcomes for cattle with complete traumatic exungulation.
Record databases of 2 teaching hospitals were searched to identify cattle treated for traumatic exungulation between January 1993 and December 2018. Information about signalment, clinical signs and findings, treatment, and outcome was extracted from the records or obtained by telephone communication with the owner.
Records for 5 bulls, 4 heifers, and 1 cow with a median age of 2 years (range, 1 day to 10 years) and weight of 379.1 kg (range, 30 to 909.1 kg) were reviewed. Duration of clinical signs ranged from ≤ 24 hours to 3.5 days. Five of 7 animals had a lameness score > 3/5. Complete exungulation occurred in 6 medial digits (3 hind limbs and 3 forelimbs) and 5 lateral digits (1 hind limb and 4 forelimbs); 1 calf had complete exungulation of both digits of a forelimb. Treatments included bandaging (n = 9), antimicrobials (9), anti-inflammatories (8), hoof block application to the adjacent digit (7), regional anesthesia (6), cast application (4), curettage of the third phalanx (3), regional antimicrobial perfusion (1), and local application of antimicrobial-impregnated beads (1). All 7 cattle with long-term (≥ 9 months) information available returned to their intended function; 6 had no residual lameness, and 3 required regular corrective trimming of the affected digit.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested the prognosis for long-term survival and return to intended function is fair to good for cattle with complete exungulation.
This article provides information to assist practitioners in the diagnosis, medical, and surgical management of obstructive urolithiasis in miniature pigs. The article focuses primarily on pigs managed as pets because production swine rarely undergo intensive treatment for urolithiasis. As much as possible, the information in this article is based on published literature, but given the limited number of publications addressing obstructive urolithiasis in pigs, some information is based on the authors’ clinical experience. Medical and surgical management of obstructive urolithiasis of pigs is often similar to management in ruminant and small animal species, but differences in swine anatomy, handling, and temperament create unique challenges. Pigs tend to be more difficult to restrain and examine than other livestock and often require heavy sedation or anesthesia to facilitate physical examination and basic diagnostic procedures. Because pigs are monogastrics, some oral treatments used in small animals may be used effectively in pigs. Clinicians should follow AMDUCA and consult the Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank prior to extralabel drug use because pet pigs are still considered a major food-producing species in the United States.
To evaluate potential prognostic indicators for does with pregnancy toxemia (PT) and their offspring.
Retrospective cohort study.
Medical records were searched to identify does with PT. Signalment, history, clinical signs, examination findings, treatments, number of offspring present, and duration of hospitalization for does as well as outcome (death vs survival to hospital discharge) for does and their kids were recorded. Variables of interest were examined for association with outcome by contingency table analyses.
Boer goats were overrepresented, compared with the general population of goats for the facility in the last year of the study. Most (15/36) does had appropriate body condition scores. All pregnancies involved twins (11/56), triplets (37), or quadruplets (7). Neutrophilia (26/26) and hyperglycemia (32/40) were common in does. Most (39/56) does survived to hospital discharge. Does with high BUN concentration and those with serum bicarbonate concentration < 15 mEq/L were more likely to die than does without these findings. Forty-nine does survived to delivery of offspring; survival to discharge for these does was positively associated with outcome of their offspring. Among offspring of dams that survived to their delivery, twins had a higher survival rate than quadruplets. Death was more likely for offspring delivered by cesarean section than for those delivered vaginally.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested Boers were more likely to develop PT than goats of other breeds in the population examined at the study hospital. In contrast with other studies, hyperglycemia was common in affected does. Further research is needed to confirm associations with outcome identified in this study.
PROCEDURES Three 5F angiographic catheters of the same length (100 cm) and diameter (0.17 cm) but differing in curvature at the tip were labeled A (straight tip), B (tip bent in 1 place), and C (tip bent in 2 places). During a single anesthetic episode, attempts were made to blindly pass each catheter into the urinary bladder of each goat. Order of catheters used was randomized, and the veterinarian passing the catheter was blinded as to catheter identity. The total number of attempts at catheter passage and the total number of successful attempts were recorded.
RESULTS Catheter A was unsuccessfully passed in all 12 goats, catheter B was successfully passed in 8 goats, and catheter C was successfully passed in 4 goats. The success rate for catheter B was significantly greater than that for catheter A; however, no significant difference was identified between catheters B and C or catheters A and C.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE 2 angiographic catheters were identified that could be successfully, blindly advanced in a retrograde direction into the urinary bladder of healthy sexually intact male goats. Such catheters may be useful for determining urethral patency, emptying the urinary bladder, and instilling chemolysing agents in goats with clinical obstructive urolithiasis.
This article provides information to help US-based practitioners develop differential diagnoses for, and recognize foreign animal diseases associated with, dermatologic lesions in small ruminants. Sheep and goat pox are currently considered foreign animal diseases (in the United States) and may cause lesions similar to other endemic diseases of small ruminants including orf, ulcerative dermatosis, bluetongue, and dermatophilosis. Any cases involving unusual dermatologic lesions associated with high morbidity and/or mortality warrant reporting to governmental authorities including USDA APHIS or state regulatory veterinarians for herd or flock investigations. Vigilance on the part of livestock veterinarians and small ruminant producers is of paramount importance in preventing the entry and spread of economically devastating foreign animal diseases.
OBJECTIVE To describe concentration-over-time data for ampicillin and sulbactam in the digital and systemic circulations and synovial fluid (SYN) of cattle following a single injection of ampicillin-sulbactam as a regional IV perfusion (RIVP).
PROCEDURES The right hind limb of each cow was aseptically prepared. A tourniquet was applied around the midmetatarsal region, and 1.0 g of ampicillin with 0.5 g of sulbactam in a combined formulation was administered as an RIVP into the dorsal common digital vein (DCDV). Blood samples from the DCDV and jugular vein and SYN samples from the metatarsophalangeal joint of the prepared limb were collected immediately before and at predetermined times for 24 hours after RIVP. One blood sample was obtained from the abaxial proper plantar vein of the lateral digit of the prepared limb 0.25 hours after RIVP. Serum and SYN ampicillin and sulbactam concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography.
RESULTS Mean ± SD maximum concentration of ampicillin in SYN and serum obtained from the abaxial proper plantar and jugular veins was 1,995 ± 1,011 μg/mL, 5,422 ± 1,953 μg/mL, and 2.5 ± 1.6 μg/mL, respectively. Corresponding serum and SYN concentrations of sulbactam were lower but followed the same pattern over time as those for ampicillin. Synovial fluid ampicillin concentration remained above 8 μg/mL for a mean time of 18.9 hours.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Potentially therapeutic concentrations of ampicillin were achieved in regional serum and SYN samples; SYN concentrations remained at potentially therapeutic values for > 12 hours following RIVP of 1.5 g of ampicillin-sulbactam in the hind limb of healthy cows.
To assess signalment, clinical findings, and treatments for New World camelids (NWCs) hospitalized for evaluation and treatment of neonatal disorders and investigate associations between these factors and death during and after hospitalization.
267 NWCs ≤ 30 days of age.
Medical records of a veterinary teaching hospital were retrospectively reviewed to identify NWCs admitted for evaluation and treatment of neonatal disorders between 2000 and 2010. Signalment, physical examination data, diagnostic findings, treatments, and outcomes were recorded. Factors were examined for association with death during hospitalization and the overall hazard of death by use of multivariable logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards analysis, respectively.
The sample comprised alpacas (n = 255) and llamas (12). Median age at admission was 3 days, and median hospitalization time was 2 days; 208 of the 267 (77.9%) neonatal NWCs survived to hospital discharge. Factors associated with increased odds of death during hospitalization included prematurity or dysmaturity, hypothermia, sepsis, toxic changes in neutrophils, and undergoing surgery. The odds of death during hospitalization also increased as anion gap increased. After discharge, 151 of 176 (85.8%) animals had follow-up information available (median follow-up time, 2,932 days); 126 (83%) were alive and 25 (17%) had died. Prematurity or dysmaturity, congenital defects, sepsis, oxygen administration, and undergoing surgery as a neonate were associated with an increased hazard of death; the hazard of death also increased as serum chloride concentration at the time of hospitalization increased.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested the prognosis for survival during and after hospitalization is good for most NWCs hospitalized because of neonatal disorders.
Objective—To evaluate whether pedal bacteremia develops following regional IV perfusion (RIVP) of a 2% lidocaine hydrochloride solution in cattle with deep digital sepsis (DDS) and to determine which bacterial pathogens are most commonly isolated from the pedal circulation.
Design—Prospective observational cohort study.
Animals—9 adult cattle with DDS in 10 limbs and 10 healthy adult cattle with no evidence of lameness or digital infection.
Procedures—Blood samples were obtained aseptically from the dorsal common digital vein immediately following tourniquet application and 30 to 60 minutes after aseptic RIVP with a 2% lidocaine solution. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures were performed on all samples collected. For cattle with DDS, clinical examination with or without debridement of digital lesions was performed after RIVP.
Results—Bacteria were isolated from pedal blood prior to RIVP in 1 cow with DDS and after RIVP and examination with or without debridement in that cow and 4 additional cattle with DDS. Bacteria were not isolated from any blood sample obtained from the healthy cattle. Of the 8 bacterial isolates identified, 5 were gram-positive facultative anaerobes. Cattle with DDS were significantly more likely to develop bacteremia in the pedal circulation than were healthy cattle following RIVP.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that bacteremia may be present in the pedal circulation before and following RIVP and examination with or without debridement in cattle with DDS. Thus, systemic or local antimicrobial treatment might be warranted prior to or concurrently with RIVP in cattle with DDS.